Zhuge Liang 諸葛亮 was the Chancellor of Shu-Han and husband of the Lady Huang. He was often depicted wearing a robe and carrying a fan of crane feathers. Zhuge Liang was considered to be the greatest tactician of his time; his name is synonymous with wisdom in Chinese culture, today. However, most of the legend surrounding his wisdom is based on fiction. In history he showed his wisdom mainly as a politician, rather than a strategist.
Zhuge Liang was born in Yangdu County in Langya Commandery , at present-day Yinan County, Shandong Province. He was the second of three brothers and became orphaned at an early age; his mother died when he was three years old, and his father died when he was about 12. His uncle raised him and his siblings. When Cao Cao invaded Shandong in 195, his family was forced to flee south and his uncle soon died of illness.
Both his sisters were married into notable families with numerous relations in the area. For ten years he resided in Longzhong Commandery with his brothers Zhuge Jin and Zhuge Jun, leading a simple peasant life – farming by day and studying at night.
- Ancestor: Zhuge Feng (諸葛豐), served as Director of Retainers during the reign of Emperor Yuan of Han
- Father: Zhuge Gui (諸葛珪), served as Assistant in Mount Tai Commandery during the late Han Dynasty
- Uncle: Zhuge Xuan (諸葛玄), served as Administrator of Yuzhang, joined Liu Biao later. Raised Zhuge Liang and Zhuge Jun.
- Zhuge Dan, served Wei, killed after his defeat
- Spouse: Lady Huang, daughter of Huang Chengyan. Huang Chengyan married the younger sister of Lady Cai, who was married to Liu Biao.
- Zhuge Zhan, served Shu, killed in action
- Zhuge Huai (諸葛懷), lived as a commoner
- Adopted children:
- Zhuge Qiao, son of Zhuge Jin, adopted by Zhuge Liang, served Shu, died at a young age
- Zhuge Pan (諸葛攀), son of Zhuge Qiao, returned to Eastern Wu to continue the Zhuge family line there after Zhuge Ke's death
- Zhuge Shang, oldest son of Zhuge Zhan, killed in action with his father during the Conquest of Shu by Wei
- Zhuge Jing (諸葛京), second son of Zhuge Zhan, moved to Hedong in 264 with Zhuge Pan's son Zhuge Xian (諸葛顯), served the Jin Dynasty
- Zhuge Zhi (諸葛質), youngest son of Zhuge Zhan
Fact vs. FictionEdit
- …Zhuge Liang played only a small role in the Battle of Chibi.
- …at Chibi, Zhuge Liang did not change the winds to make the fire attack succeed.
- …at Chibi, Zhuge Liang did not use the 'arrow-borrowing' trick (Sun Quan did, but not during Chibi).
- …Zhuge Liang did not have a rivalry with Zhou Yu.
- …Zhou Yu's final words were not about Zhuge Liang.
- …Zhuge Liang did not attend Zhou Yu's funeral.
- …was not given authority by Liu Bei to kill Liu Shan.
- …his strongest points were political administration and his ability to draw battle plans. Situational strategy was in fact his weakness.
- ↑ “Father of ... Zhuge Liang... Zhuge Gui became Assistant in Taishan commandery, but died about 193”
de Crespigny. "Zhuge Gui" in A Biographical Dictionary of Later Han to the Three Kingdoms
- Chen Shou 陳壽 (233–297). Sanguo zhi 三國志 “Records of the Three Kingdoms”, with official commentary compiled by Pei Songzhi 裴松之 (372-451).
- de Crespigny, Rafe. A Biographical Dictionary of Later Han to the Three Kingdoms (23 - 220 AD). Leiden: BRILL, 2007.