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Xu Han shu 續漢書 (History of Han Continued) is a history work written by Sima Biao 司馬彪 of the Jin dynasty. At the time of writing the Later Han did not have a proper official history text yet. The Xu Han shu was Sima Biao's attempt at writing one, but it was later overshadowed by the History of the Later Han.

Bits of informationEdit

The author, Sima Biao, lived until 306. A second cousin of Jin dynasty founder Sima Yan.

During Sima Biao's time, the Later Han dynasty had long since ended, however an official history of the dynasty had yet to be written. Its succeeding Three Kingdoms period did already have an official history of its own: the Records of the Three Kingdoms by Chen Shou. The Later Han dynasty however did not have an outstanding historian like the Three Kingdoms period had. Attempts at writing an official history were usually complex and messy. Historian Qiao Zhou had done some editting work, but omissions remained regardless.

Sima Biao took it upon him to write a proper official history for the Later Han. He studied many official and unofficial history texts. His hard work resulted in the 80-chapter long Xu Han shu. The Xu Han shu was divided into three sections: an annals section, a treatises section and a biographies section. Through these sections the history of the Later Han, starting with founding Emperor Guangwu and ending with Emperor Xian, was told.

The Xu Han shu was later overshadowed by the History of the Later Han, by Fan Ye, which became the official history for the Later Han dynasty. However, Fan Ye died before completing his work, leaving the treatises section unfinished. The treatises-section of the Xu Han shu was used to complete the History of the Later Han.

The annals and biographies of the Xu Han shu are lost, but fragments of it remain through Pei Songzhi's annotations to Records of the Three Kingdoms, which you can see below.

Fragments in Records of the Three KingdomsEdit

Book of Wei 1 - Annals of Emperor Wu (Cao Cao)Edit

  1. 司馬彪《續漢書》曰:騰父節,字元偉,素以仁厚稱。鄰人有亡豕者,與節豕相類,詣門認之,節不與爭;後所亡豕自還其家,豕主人大慙,送所認豕,并辭謝節,節笑而受之。由是鄉黨貴歎焉。長子伯興,次子仲興,次子叔興。騰字季興,少除黃門從官。永寧元年,鄧太后詔黃門令選中黃門從官年少溫謹者,配皇太子書,騰應其選。太子特親愛騰,飲食賞賜與衆有異。順帝即位,為小黃門,遷至中常侍大長秋。在省闥三十餘年,歷事四帝,未甞有過。好進達賢能,終無所毀傷。其所稱薦,若陳留虞放、邊韶、南陽延固、張溫、弘農張奐、潁川堂谿典等,皆致位公卿,而不伐其善。蜀郡太守因計吏修敬於騰,益州刺史种暠於函谷關搜得其牋,上太守,并奏騰內臣外交,所不當為,請免官治罪。帝曰:「牋自外來,騰書不出,非其罪也。」乃寑暠奏。騰不以介意,常稱歎暠,以為暠得事上之節。暠後為司徒,語人曰:「今日為公,乃曹常侍恩也。」騰之行事,皆此類也。桓帝即位,以騰先帝舊臣,忠孝彰著,封費亭侯,加位特進。太和三年,追尊騰曰高皇帝。
  2. 《續漢書》曰:嵩字巨高。質性敦慎,所在忠孝。為司隷校尉,靈帝擢拜大司農、大鴻臚,代崔烈為太尉。黃初元年,追尊嵩曰太皇帝。
  3. 《續漢書》曰:玄字公祖,嚴明有才略,長於人物。
  4. 《續漢書》郡國志曰:獷平,縣名,屬漁陽郡。
  5. 《續漢書》曰:慮字鴻豫,山陽高平人。少受業於鄭玄,建安初為侍中。
  6. 臣松之案司馬彪《序傳》,建公不為右丞,疑此不然,而王隱《晉書》云趙王篡位,欲尊祖為帝,博士馬平議稱京兆府君昔舉魏武帝為北部尉,賊不犯界,如此則為有徵。

Book of Wei 2 - Annals of Emperor Wen (Cao Pi)Edit

  1. 《續漢書》曰:彪見漢祚將終,自以累世為三公,恥為魏臣,遂稱足攣,不復行。積十餘年,帝即王位,欲以為太尉,令近臣宣旨。彪辭曰:「甞以漢朝為三公,值世衰亂,不能立尺寸之益,若復為魏臣,於國之選,亦不為榮也。」帝不奪其意。黃初四年,詔拜光祿大夫,秩中二千石,朝見位次三公,如孔光故事。彪上章固讓,帝不聽,又為門施行馬,致吏卒,以優崇之。年八十四,以六年薨。子脩,事見陳思王傳。

Book of Wei 6 - Biography of Dong ZhuoEdit

  1. 《續漢書》曰:進字遂高,南陽人,太后異母兄也。進本屠家子,父曰真。真死後,進以妹倚黃門得入掖庭,有寵,光和三年立為皇后,進由是貴幸。中平元年,黃巾起,拜進大將軍。
  2. 《續漢書》曰:太尉黃琬、司徒楊彪、司空荀爽俱詣卓,卓言:「昔高祖都關中,十一世後中興,更都洛陽。從光武至今復十一世,案石苞室讖,宜復還都長安。」坐中皆驚愕,無敢應者。彪曰:「遷都改制,天下大事,皆當因民之心,隨時之宜。昔盤庚五遷,殷民胥怨,故作三篇以曉之。往者王莽篡逆,變亂五常,更始赤眉之時,焚燒長安,殘害百姓,民人流亡,百無一在。光武受命,更都洛邑,此其宜也。今方建立聖主,光隆漢祚,而無故捐宮廟,棄園陵,恐百姓驚愕,不解此意,必麋沸蟻聚以致擾亂。石苞室讖,妖邪之書,豈可信用?」卓作色曰:「楊公欲沮國家計邪?關東方亂,所在賊起。崤函險固,國之重防。又隴右取材,功夫不難。杜陵南山下有孝武故陶處,作塼瓦,一朝可辦。宮室官府,蓋何足言!百姓小民,何足與議。若有前郤,我以大兵驅之,豈得自在。」百寮恐怖失色。琬謂卓曰:「此大事。楊公之語,得無重思!」卓罷坐,即日令司隷奏彪及琬,皆免官。大駕即西。卓部兵燒洛陽城外面百里。又自將兵燒南北宮及宗廟、府庫、民家,城內埽地殄盡。又收諸富室,以罪惡沒入其財物;無辜而死者,不可勝計。
  3. 《續漢書》曰:唐珍,中常侍唐衡弟。張顥,中常侍張奉弟。

Book of Wei 6 - Biography of Yuan ShaoEdit

  1. 《續漢書》曰:紹使客張津說進曰:「黃門、常侍秉權日乆,又永樂太后與諸常侍專通財利,將軍宜整頓天下,為海內除患。」進以為然,遂與紹結謀。

Book of Wei 10 - Biography of Xun YuEdit

  1. 《續漢書》曰:淑有高才,王暢、李膺皆以為師,為朗陵侯相,號稱神君。張璠《漢紀》曰:淑博學有高行,與李固、李膺同志友善,拔李昭於小吏,友黃叔度于幼童,以賢良方正徵,對策譏切梁氏,出補朗陵侯相,卒官。八子:儉、緄、靖、燾、詵、爽、肅、归。音敷。爽字慈明,幼好學,年十二,通春秋、論語,耽思經典,不應徵命,積十數年。董卓秉政,復徵爽,爽欲遁去,吏持之急。詔下郡,即拜平原相。行至苑陵,又追拜光祿勳。視事三日,策拜司空。爽起自布衣,九十五日而至三公。淑舊居西豪里,縣令苑康曰昔高陽氏有才子八人,署其里為高陽里。靖字叔慈,亦有至德,名幾亞爽,隱居終身。

Book of Wei 12 - Biography of Cui YanEdit

  1. 《續漢書》曰:融,孔子二十世孫也。高祖父尚,鉅鹿太守。父宙,太山都尉。融幼有異才。時河南尹李膺有重名,敕門下簡通賓客,非當世英賢及通家子孫弗見也。融年十餘歲,欲觀其為人,遂造膺門,語門者曰:「我,李君通家子孫也。」膺見融,問曰:「高明父祖,嘗與僕周旋乎?」融曰:「然。先君孔子與君先人李老君,同德比義而相師友,則融與君累世通家也。」眾坐奇之,僉曰:「異童子也。」太中大夫陳煒後至,同坐以告煒,煒曰:「人小時了了者,大亦未必奇也。」融答曰:「即如所言,君之幼時,豈實慧乎!」膺大笑,顧謂曰:「高明長大,必為偉器。」山陽張儉,以中正為中常侍侯覽所忿疾,覽為刊章下州郡捕儉。儉與融兄有舊,亡投。遇出,時融年十六,儉以其少不告也。融知儉長者,有窘迫色,謂曰:「吾獨不能為君主邪!」因留舍藏之。後事泄,國相以下密就掩捕,儉得脫走,登時收融及送獄。融曰:「保納藏舍者融也,融當坐之。」曰:「彼來求我,罪我之由,非弟之過,我當坐之。」兄弟爭死,郡縣疑不能決,乃上讞,詔書令坐焉。融由是名震遠近,與平原陶丘洪、陳留邊讓,並以俊秀,為後進冠蓋。融持論經理不及讓等,而逸才宏博過之。司徒大將軍辟舉高第,累遷北軍中候、虎賁中郎將、北海相,時年三十八。承黃巾殘破之後,修復城邑,崇學校,設庠序,舉賢才,顯儒士。以彭璆為方正,邴原為有道,王脩為孝廉。告高密縣為鄭玄特立一鄉,名為鄭公鄉。又國人無後,及四方游士有死亡者,皆為棺木而殯葬之。郡人甄子然孝行知名,早卒,融恨不及之,乃令配食縣社。其禮賢如此。在郡六年,劉備表融領青州刺史。建安元年,徵還為將作大匠,遷少府。每朝會訪對,輒為議主,諸卿大夫寄名而已。
  2. 《續漢書》曰:太尉楊彪與袁術婚姻,術僭號,太祖與彪有隙,因是執彪,將殺焉。融聞之,不及朝服,往見太祖曰:「楊公累世清德,四葉重光,周書『父子兄弟,罪不相及』,況以袁氏之罪乎?易稱『積善餘慶』,但欺人耳。」太祖曰:「國家之意也。」融曰:「假使成王欲殺召公,則周公可得言不知邪?今天下纓緌搢紳之士所以瞻仰明公者,以明公聰明仁智,輔相漢朝,舉直措枉,致之雍熙耳。今橫殺無辜,則海內觀聽,誰不解體?孔融魯國男子,明日便當褰衣而去,不復朝矣。」太祖意解,遂理出彪。

Book of Wei 12 - Biography of Cui YanEdit

  1. 司馬彪《序傳》曰:朗祖父雋,字元異,博學好古,倜儻有大度。長八尺三寸,腰帶十圍,儀狀魁岸,與眾有異,鄉黨宗族咸景附焉。位至潁川太守。父防,字建公,性質直公方,雖閒居宴處,威儀不忒。雅好漢書名臣列傳,所諷誦者數十萬言。少仕州郡,歷官洛陽令、京兆尹,以年老轉拜騎都尉。養志閭巷,闔門自守。諸子雖冠成人,不命曰進不敢進,不命曰坐不敢坐,不指有所問不敢言,父子之間肅如也。年七十一,建安二十四年終。有子八人,朗最長,次即晉宣皇帝也。

Book of Wei 16 - Biography of Zheng HunEdit

  1. 《續漢書》曰:興字少贛,諫議大夫。眾字子師,大司農。

Book of Wei 21 - Biography of Wang CanEdit

  1. 《續漢書》曰:劭又著中漢輯敘、漢官儀及禮儀故事,凡十一種,百三十六卷。朝廷制度,百官儀式,所以不亡者,由劭記之。官至泰山太守。劭弟珣,字季瑜,司空掾,即瑒之父。

Book of Wei 22 - Biography of Lu YuEdit

  1. 《續漢書》曰:植字子幹。少事馬融,與鄭玄同門相友。植剛毅有大節,常喟然有濟世之志,不苟合取容,不應州郡命召。建寧中,徵博士,出補九江太守,以病去官。作尚書章句、禮記解詁。稍遷侍中、尚書。張角起,以植為北中郎將征角,失利抵罪。頃之,復以為尚書。張讓劫少帝奔小平津,植手劍責數讓等,讓等皆放兵,垂泣謝罪,遂自殺。董卓議欲廢帝,眾莫敢對,植獨正言,語在卓傳。植以老病去位,隱居上谷軍都山,初平三年卒。太祖北征柳城,過涿郡,令告太守曰:「故北中郎將盧植,名著海內,學為儒宗,士之楷模,乃國之楨幹也。昔武王入殷,封商容之閭,鄭喪子產而仲尼隕涕。孤到此州,嘉其餘風。春秋之義,賢者之後,有異於人。敬遣丞掾脩墳墓,并致薄醊,以彰厥德。」植有四子,毓最小。

Book of Shu 1 - Biography of Liu YanEdit

  1. 《續漢書》曰:是時用劉虞為幽州,劉焉為益州,劉表為荊州,賈琮為冀州。虞等皆海內清名之士,或從列卿尚書以選為牧伯,各以本秩居任。舊典:傳車參駕,施赤為帷裳。

Book of Shu 12 - Biography of Zhou QunEdit

  1. 《續漢書》曰:建安七年,越嶲有男子化為女人,時群言哀帝時亦有此,將易代之祥也。至二十五年,獻帝果封于山陽。十二年十月,有星孛于鶉尾,荊州分野,群以為荊州牧將死而失土。明年秋,劉表卒,曹公平荊州。十七年十二月,星孛于五諸侯,群以為西方專據土地者皆將失土。是時,劉璋據益州,張魯據漢中,韓遂據涼州,宋建據枹罕。明年冬,曹公遣偏將擊涼州。十九年,獲宋建,韓遂逃于羌中,被殺。其年秋,璋失益州。二十年秋,曹公攻漢中,張魯降。

Book of Shu 12 - Biography of Meng GuangEdit

  1. 《續漢書》曰:郁,中常侍孟賁之弟。

Book of Shu 15 - Biography of Zhang YiEdit

  1. 《續漢書》曰:綱字文紀,少以三公子經明行脩舉孝廉,不就司徒辟,以高第為侍御史。漢安元年,拜光祿大夫,與侍中杜喬等八人同日受詔,持節分出,案行天下貪廉,墨綬有罪便收,刺史二千石以驛表聞,威惠清忠,名振郡國,號曰八雋。是時,大將軍梁冀侵擾百姓,喬等七人皆奉命四出,唯綱獨埋車輪於洛陽都亭不去,曰:「豺狼當路,安問狐狸?」遂上書曰:「大將軍梁冀、河南尹不疑,蒙外戚之援,荷國厚恩,以芻蕘之姿,安居阿保,不能敷揚五教,翼贊日月,而專為封豕長蛇,肆其貪饕,甘心好貨,縱恣無厭,多樹諂諛以害忠良,誠天威所不赦,大辟所宜加也。謹條其無君之心十五事於左,皆忠臣之所切齒也。」書奏御,京師震悚。時冀妹為皇后,內寵方盛,冀兄弟權重於人主,順帝雖知綱言不誣,然無心治冀。冀深恨綱。會廣陵賊張嬰等眾數萬人殺刺史二千石,冀欲陷綱,乃諷尚書以綱為廣陵太守;若不為嬰所殺,則欲以法中之。前太守往,輒多請兵,及綱受拜,詔問當得兵馬幾何,綱對曰無用兵馬,遂單車之官,徑詣嬰壘門,示以禍福。嬰大驚懼,走欲閉門。綱又於門外罷遣吏兵,留所親者十餘人,以書語其長老素為嬰所信者,請與相見,問以本變,因示以詔恩,使還請嬰。嬰見綱意誠,即出見綱。綱延置上坐,問其疾苦,禮畢,乃謂之曰:「前後二千石,多非其人,杜塞國恩,肆其私求。鄉郡遠,天子不能朝夕聞也,故民人相聚以避害。二千石信有罪矣;為之者乃非義也。忠臣不欺君以自榮,孝子不損父以求福,天子聖(人)〔仁〕,欲文德以來之,故使太守來,思以爵祿相榮,不願以刑也。今誠轉禍為福之時也;若聞義不服,天子赫然發怒,大兵雲合,豈不危乎!宜深計其利害。」嬰聞,泣曰:「荒裔愚人,數為二千石所侵枉,不堪其困,故遂相聚偷生。明府仁及草木,乃嬰等更生之澤,但恐投兵之日,不免孥戮耳。」綱曰:「豈其然乎!要之以天地,誓之以日月,方當相顯以爵位,何禍之有乎?」嬰曰:「苟赦其罪,得全首領以就農畝,則抱戴沒齒,爵祿非所望也。」嬰雖為大賊,起於狂暴,自以為必死,及得綱言,曠然開明,乃辭還營。明日,遂將所部萬餘人,與妻子面縛詣綱降。綱悉釋縛慰納,謂嬰曰:「卿諸人一旦解散,方垂盪然,當條名上之,必受封賞。」嬰曰:「乞歸故業,不願以穢名汙明時也。」綱以其至誠,乃各從其意,親為安處居宅。子弟欲為吏者,隨才任職,欲為民者,勸以農桑,田業並豐,南州晏然。論功,綱當封,為冀所遏絕,故不得侯。天子美其功,徵欲用之。嬰等上書,乞留在郡二歲。建康元年,病卒官,時年三十六。嬰等三百餘人,皆衰杖送綱喪至洛陽,葬訖,為起冢立祠,四時奉祭,思慕如喪考妣。天子追念不已,下詔褒揚,除一子為郎。

Book of Wu 1 - Biography of Sun JianEdit

  1. 《續漢書》曰:儁字公偉,會稽人,少好學,為郡功曹,察孝廉,舉進士。漢朝以討黃巾功拜車騎將軍,累遷河南尹。董卓見儁,外甚親納,而心忌之,儁亦陰備焉。關東兵起,卓議移都,儁輒止卓。卓雖憚儁,然貪其名重,乃表拜太僕以自副。儁被召不肯受拜,因進曰:「國不宜遷,必孤天下望,成山東之結,臣不見其可也。」有司詰曰:「召君受拜而君拒之,不問徙事而君陳之,何也?」儁曰:「副相國,非臣所堪也。遷都非計,臣之所急也。辭所不堪,進臣所急,臣之所宜也。」有司曰:「遷都之事,初無此計也,就有,未露,何所受聞?」儁曰:「相國董卓為臣說之,臣聞之於相國。」有司不能屈,朝廷稱服焉。後為太尉。李傕、郭汜相攻,劫質天子公卿,儁性剛,即發病而卒。

Book of Wu 4 - Biography of Liu YaoEdit

  1. 《續漢書》曰:繇祖父本,師受經傳,博學群書,號為通儒。舉賢良方正,為般長,卒官。寵字祖榮,受父業,以經明行修,舉孝廉,光祿(大夫)察四行,除東平陵令。視事數年,以母病棄官,百姓士民攀輿拒輪,充塞道路,車不得前,乃止亭,輕服潛遁,歸脩供養。後辟大將軍府,稍遷會稽太守,正身率下,郡中大治。徵入為將作大匠。山陰縣民去治數十里有若邪中在山谷間,五六老翁年皆七八十,聞寵遷,相率共送寵,人齎百錢。寵見,勞來曰:「父老何乃自苦遠來!」皆對曰:「山谷鄙老,生未嘗至郡縣。他時吏發求不去,民閒或夜不絕狗吠,竟夕民不得安。自明府下車以來,狗不夜吠,吏稀至民閒,年老遭值聖化,今聞當見棄去,故戮力來送。」寵謝之,為選受一大錢,故會稽號寵為取一錢太守。其清如是。寵前後歷二郡,八居九列,四登三事。家不藏賄,無重寶器,恆菲飲食,薄衣服,弊車羸馬,號為窶陋。三去相位,輒歸本土。往來京師,常下道脫驂過,人莫知焉。寵嘗欲止亭,亭吏止之曰:「整頓傳舍,以待劉公,不可得止。」寵因過去。其廉儉皆此類也。以老病卒于家。
  2. 《續漢書》曰:繇父輿,一名方,山陽太守。岱、繇皆有雋才。

Book of Wu 15 - Biography of Zhongli MuEdit

  1. 《續漢書》曰:宮字少子,琅邪人,嘗在蒙陰山中耕種禾黍,臨熟,人就認之,宮便推與而去,由是發名,位至左中郎將、侍中。

NotesEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. Ulrich Theobald. [China Knowledge]

SourcesEdit

  • Chen Shou 陳壽 (233–297). Sanguo zhi 三國志 “Records of the Three Kingdoms”, with official commentary compiled by Pei Songzhi 裴松之 (372-451).
  • Fang Xuanling 房玄齡 (578-648). Jin shu 晉書 “History of Jin”. Beijing: Zhonghua shuju, 1974.
  • Ulrich Theobald. China Knowledge <www.chinaknowledge.de>.

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