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Tiao Zhuge Liang wushi

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Tiao Zhuge Liang wushi 條諸葛亮五事 (“A Listing of Five Anecdotes about Zhuge Liang”), written by Guo Zhong 郭沖, was an essay of criticism on Zhuge Liang of Shu-Han written in the 260's.

DescriptionEdit

According to Rafe de Crespigny, the Tiao Zhuge Liang wushi was an essay of criticism on Zhuge Liang of Shu-Han in five sections. Pei Songzhi quotes several times from this work in Zhuge Liang's biography in Records of the Three Kingdoms, Book of Shu 05. The work was written shortly after the conquest of Shu-Han by Jin and it was quoted in the Shu ji 蜀記 by Wang Yin.[1]

According to Hoyt Cleveland Tillman, the Wushi was criticism disguised as compliments:

A voice in the expanded Sanguo zhi that challenged Chen Shou’s view on these points ["military strategy was not his strong point"] belonged to Guo Chong 郭沖, the Jin subject whose backhanded compliments repeatedly provoked Pei Songzhi’s rebuttals. Guo proclaimed that Zhuge’s brilliant situational strategies far surpassed those of Guan Zhong. Guo Chong’s narrative representation of Zhuge’s strengths would, however, best be read as ironic, even if later hero-lauding works incorporated elements from his stories without taking note of the ironies.

The Tiao Zhuge Liang wushi is often called just Wushi 五事.

Guo Zhong was a subject of Jin and earlier served Wei.

Fragments in Records of the Three KingdomsEdit

Book of Shu 5 - Biography of Zhuge LiangEdit

  1. 臣松之以為亮之異美,誠所願聞,然冲之所說,實皆可疑,謹隨事難之如左:其《一事》曰:亮刑法峻急,刻剥百姓,自君子小人咸懷怨歎,法正諫曰:「昔高祖入關,約法三章,秦民知德,今君假借威力,跨據一州,初有其國,未垂惠撫;且客主之義,宜相降下,願緩刑弛禁,以慰其望。」亮荅曰;「君知其一,未知其二。秦以無道,政苛民怨,匹夫大呼,天下土崩,高祖因之,可以弘濟。劉璋闇弱,自焉已來有累世之恩,文法羈縻,互相承奉,德政不舉,威刑不肅。蜀土人士,專權自恣,君臣之道,漸以陵替;寵之以位,位極則賤,順之以恩,恩竭則慢。所以致弊,實由於此。吾今威之以法,法行則知恩,限之以爵,爵加則知榮;榮恩並濟,上下有節。為治之要,於斯而著。」難曰:案法正在劉主前死,今稱法正諫,則劉主在也。諸葛職為股肱,事歸元首,劉主之世,亮又未領益州,慶賞刑政不出於己。尋沖所述亮荅,專自有其能,有違人臣自處之宜。以亮謙順之體,殆必不然。又云亮刑法峻急,刻剥百姓,未聞善政以刻剥為稱。其《二事》曰:曹公遣刺客見劉備,方得交接,開論伐魏形勢,甚合備計。稍欲親近,刺者尚未得便會,旣而亮入,魏客神色失措。亮因而察之,亦知非常人。須臾,客如厠,備謂亮曰;「向得奇士,足以助君補益。」亮問所在,備曰:「起者其人也。」亮徐歎曰:「觀客色動而神懼,視低而忤數,姦形外漏,邪心內藏,必曹氏刺客也。」追之,已越墻而走。難曰:凡為刺客,皆暴虎馮河,死而無悔者也。劉主有知人之鑒,而惑於此客,則此客必一時之奇士也。又語諸葛云「足以助君補益」,則亦諸葛之流亞也。凡如諸葛之儔,鮮有為人作刺客者矣,時主亦當惜其器用,必不投之死地也。且此人不死,要應顯達為魏,竟是誰乎?何其寂蔑而無聞!
  2. 郭沖《三事》曰:亮屯于陽平,遣魏延諸軍并兵東下,亮惟留萬人守城。晉宣帝率二十萬衆拒亮,而與延軍錯道,徑至前,當亮六十里所,偵候白宣帝說亮在城中兵少力弱。亮亦知宣帝垂至,已與相偪,欲前赴延軍,相去又遠,回迹反追,勢不相及,將士失色,莫知其計。亮意氣自若,勑軍中皆卧旗息鼓,不得妄出菴幔,又令大開四城門,埽地却洒。宣帝常謂亮持重,而猥見勢弱,疑其有伏兵,於是引軍北趣山。明日食時,亮謂參佐拊手大笑曰:「司馬懿必謂吾怯,將有彊伏,循山走矣。」候邏還白,如亮所言。宣帝後知,深以為恨。難曰:案陽平在漢中。亮初屯陽平,宣帝尚為荊州都督,鎮宛城,至曹真死後,始與亮於關中相抗禦耳。魏甞遣宣帝自宛由西城伐蜀,值霖雨,不果。此之前後,無復有於陽平交兵事。就如沖言,宣帝旣舉二十萬衆,已知亮兵少力弱,若疑其有伏兵,正可設防持重,何至便走乎?案魏延傳云:「延每隨亮出,輒欲請精兵萬人,與亮異道會于潼關,亮制而不許;延常謂亮為怯,歎己才用之不盡也。」亮尚不以延為萬人別統,豈得如沖言,頓使將重兵在前,而以輕弱自守乎?且沖與扶風王言,顯彰宣帝之短,對子毀父,理所不容,而云「扶風王慨然善沖之言」,故知此書舉引皆虛。
  3. 郭沖《四事》曰:亮出祁山,隴西、南安二郡應時降,圍天水,拔兾城,虜姜維,驅略士女數千人還蜀。人皆賀亮,亮顏色愀然有戚容,謝曰:「普天之下,莫非漢民,國家威力未舉,使百姓困於犲狼之吻。一夫有死,皆亮之罪,以此相賀,能不為愧。」於是蜀人咸知亮有吞魏之志,非惟拓境而已。難曰:亮有吞魏之志乆矣,不始於此衆人方知也,且于時師出無成,傷缺而反者衆,三郡歸降而不能有。姜維,天水之匹夫耳,獲之則於魏何損?拔西縣千家,不補街亭所喪,以何為功,而蜀人相賀乎?
  4. 郭沖《五事》曰:魏明帝自征蜀,幸長安,遣宣王督張郃諸軍,雍、涼勁卒三十餘萬,潛軍密進,規向劒閣。亮時在祁山,旌旗利器,守在險要,十二更下,在者八万。時魏軍始陳,幡兵適交,參佐咸以賊衆彊盛,非力不制,宜權停下兵一月,以并聲勢。亮曰:「吾統武行師,以大信為本,得原失信,古人所惜;去者束裝以待期,妻子鶴望而計日,雖臨征難,義所不廢。」皆催遣令去。於是去者感恱,願留一戰,住者憤踊,思致死命。相謂曰:「諸葛公之恩,死猶不報也。」臨戰之日,莫不拔刃爭先,以一當十,殺張郃,却宣王,一戰大剋,此信之由也。難曰:臣松之案:亮前出祁山,魏明帝身至長安耳,此年不復自來。且亮大軍在關、隴,魏人何由得越亮徑向劒閣?亮旣在戰場,本無乆駐之規,而方休兵還蜀,皆非經通之言。孫盛、習鑿齒搜求異同,罔有所遺,而並不載沖言,知其乖剌多矣。

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. 1.0 1.1 de Crespigny, The Records of the Three Kingdoms, page 84.
  2. de Crespigny. “Index of Books and Writers quoted in the P'ei Sung-chih commentary to San-kuo chih” in The Records of the Three Kingdoms.

SourcesEdit

  • Chen Shou 陳壽 (233–297). Sanguo zhi 三國志 "Records of the Three Kingdoms", with official commentary compiled by Pei Songzhi 裴松之 (372-451).

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