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Sanguo pingzhi 三國評志 (Annotated Records of the Three Kingdoms) is a Chinese history text written by Xu Zhong 徐衆.

Bits of informationEdit

This text is mentioned in the Book of Sui, and in there is said to have been 3 juan 卷 long. The Book of Sui writes Xu Zhong's personal name as Yuan 袁. The Jiu Tang shu and the Xin Tang shu write his name as Xu 徐, which agrees with Pei Songzhi.[1]

Fragments in Records of the Three KingdomsEdit

Book of Wei 7 - Biography of Zang Hong (and sub-section Chen Rong)Edit

  1. 徐衆《三國評》曰:洪敦天下名義,救舊君之危,其恩足以感人情,義足以勵薄俗。然袁亦知己親友,致位州郡,雖非君臣,且實盟主,既受其命,義不應貳。袁、曹方睦,夾輔王室,呂布反覆無義,志在逆亂,而邈、超擅立布為州牧,其於王法,乃一罪人也。曹公討之,袁氏弗救,未為非理也。洪本不當就袁請兵,又不當還為怨讐。為洪計者,苟力所不足,可奔他國以求赴救,若謀力未展以待事機,則宜徐更觀釁,效死於超。何必誓守窮城而無變通,身死殄民,功名不立,良可哀也!
  2. Xu Zhong’s Three Kingdoms Annotated states: Hong was kindhearted and world famous for his righteousness. He sought to rescue his former lord from danger. This feeling is enough to make anyone sympathize, and this righteousness is enough to encourage the weak. However Yuan [Shao] was also a close friend, installed him in the province and commandery, and though their relationship was not that of master and servant, he was the Alliance Leader and had received their trust, and should not have been betrayed. Yuan and Cao [Cao] were at peace, and both sides sought to assist the Imperial House. Lü Bu rebelled without reason, his intentions were to rebel and create chaos, but [Zhang] Miao and Chao without authority installed Bu as provincial Governor. By the Imperial laws, they were all criminals. That Lord Cao punished them and that Yuan did not rescue them was not without reason. Hong should not have asked Yuan for troops and should not have blamed him. If Hong did not have sufficient planners or strength, he could have sought out other powers to ask help for the rescue. If his plans and strength were not enough to assist in matters, then it would be better to not just observe the quarrel but die with Chao. Why should he swear to defend the city to the end and be inflexible, dying himself and exterminating his own people, failing to establish any achievement? How tragic![3]

Book of Wei 14 - Biography of Cheng YuEdit

  1. 《徐衆評》曰:允於曹公,未成君臣。母,至親也,於義應去。昔王陵母為項羽所拘,母以高祖必得天下,因自殺以固陵志。明心無所係,然後可得成事人盡死之節。衞公子開方仕齊,積年不歸,管仲以為不懷其親,安能愛君,不可以為相。是以求忠臣必於孝子之門,允宜先救至親。徐庶母為曹公所得,劉備乃遣庶歸,欲為天下者恕人子之情也。曹公亦宜遣允。

Book of Shu 13 - Biography of Huang QuanEdit

  1. 《徐衆評》曰:權旣忠諫於主,又閉城拒守,得事君之禮。武王下車,封比干之墓,表商容之閭,所以大顯忠賢之士,而明示所貴之旨。先主假權將軍,善矣,然猶薄少,未足彰忠義之高節,而大勸為善者之心。

Book of Wu 7 - Biography of Gu YongEdit

  1. 《徐衆評》曰:雍不以呂壹見毀之故,而和顏悅色,誠長者矣。然開引其意,問所欲道,此非也。壹姦險亂法,毀傷忠賢,吳國寒心,自太子登、陸遜已下,切諫不能得,是以潘濬欲因會手劍之,以除國患,疾惡忠主,義形於色,而今乃發起令言。若壹稱枉邪,不申理,則非錄獄本旨;若承辭而奏之,吳主儻以敬丞相所言,而復原宥,伯言、承明不當悲慨哉!懷敘本無私恨,無所為嫌,故詈辱之,疾惡意耳,惡不仁者,其為仁也。季武子死,曾點倚其門而歌;子創發,子產催令自裁。以此言之,雍不當責懷敘也。

Book of Wu 15 - Biography of Quan CongEdit

  1. 《徐衆評》曰:禮,子事父無私財,又不敢私施,所以避尊上也。棄命專財而以邀名,未盡父子之禮。

Book of Wu 15 - Biography of Zhou FangEdit

  1. 《徐衆評》曰:夫人臣立功效節,雖非一塗,然各有分也。為將執桴鼓,則有必死之義,志守則有不假器之義,死必得所,義在不苟。魴為郡守,職在治民,非君所命,自占誘敵,髡剔髮膚,以徇功名,雖事濟受爵,非君子所美。

Book of Wu 15 - Biography of Zhongli MuEdit

  1. 《徐衆評》曰:牧蹈長者之規。問者曰:「如牧所行,犯而不校,又從而救之,直而不有,又還而不受,可不謂之仁讓乎哉?」答曰:「異乎吾所聞。原憲之問於孔子曰:『克伐怨欲不行焉,可以為仁乎?』孔子曰:『可以為難矣,仁則吾不知也。』『惡不仁者,其為仁矣。』今小民不展四體,而認人之稻,不仁甚矣,而牧推而與之,又救其罪,斯為讓非其義,所救非人,非所謂惡不仁者。苟不惡不仁,安得為仁哉!蒼梧澆娶妻而美,讓於其兄;尾生篤信,水至不去而死;直躬好直,證父攘羊;申鳴奉法,盡忠於君而執其父。忠信直讓,此四行者,聖賢之所貴也。然不貴蒼梧之讓,非讓道也;不取尾生之信,非信所也;不許直躬之直,非直體也;不嘉申鳴之忠,非忠意也。今牧犯而不校,還而不取,可以為難矣,未得為仁讓也。夫聖人以德報德,以直報怨,而牧欲以德報怨,非也。必不得已,二者何從?吾從孔子也。」

Book of Wu 17 - Biography of Shi YiEdit

  1. 《徐衆評》曰:古之建姓,或以所生,或以官號,或以祖名,皆有義體,以明氏族。故曰胙之以土而命之氏,此先王之典也,所以明本重始,彰示功德,子孫不忘也。今離文析字,橫生忌諱,使儀易姓,忘本誣祖,不亦謬哉!教人易姓,從人改族,融既失之,儀又不得也。
  1. 《徐衆評》曰:是儀以羈旅異方,客仕吳朝,值讒邪殄行,當嚴毅之威,命縣漏刻,禍急危機,不雷同以害人,不苟免以傷義,可謂忠勇公正之士,雖祁奚之免叔向,慶忌之濟朱雲,何以尚之?忠不諂君,勇不懾聳,公不存私,正不黨邪,資此四德,加之以文敏,崇之以謙約,履之以和順,保傅二宮,存身愛名,不亦宜乎!

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  • Quoted several times in Records of the Three Kingdoms as simply 《徐衆評》 (Xu Zhong's commentary).
  • Also seen to be quoted in Records of the Three Kingdoms as 《三國評》 (Three Kingdoms Annotated).

ReferencesEdit

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 de Crespigny. “Index of Books and Writers quoted in the P'ei Sung-chih commentary to San-kuo chih” in The Records of the Three Kingdoms.
  2. Wei Zheng. Book of Sui.
  3. "jiuyangda", biography of Zang Hong. Retrieved from Xuesanguo: xuesanguo.tumblr.com.

SourcesEdit

  • Chen Shou 陳壽 (233–297). Sanguo zhi 三國志 "Records of the Three Kingdoms", with official commentary compiled by Pei Songzhi 裴松之 (372-451).
  • de Crespigny, Rafe. The Records of the Three Kingdoms. Canberra: The Australian National University, 1970.

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