The major genres of writing common at this time are rendered as follows:
List of cited texts
The main list of texts cited by Pei Songzhi in his annotations to Chen Shou's Records of the Three Kingdoms.
After we established the list we compared it with Rafe de Crespigny's The Records of the Three Kingdoms, which contains an index of books and writers quoted by Pei Songzhi. De Crespigny only listed books that dealt with the Three Kingdoms period. Books that appear in De Crespigny's index are marked with a .
For more references and a more detailed account on how the list was compiled, see:
- List of cited texts in the Book of Wei
- List of cited texts in the Book of Shu
- List of cited texts in the Book of Wu
List of classic texts
List of texts who do not deal with the period of the Three Kingdoms itself, but were cited by Pei Songzhi to explain a persons words or actions. Many of these works were created long before the Three Kingdoms period. Some were annotated during the Han or Three Kingdoms period (but do not subject the fall of Han or Three Kingdoms).
|223||春秋公羊解詁||Chunqiu Gongyang jiegu||He Xiu 何休||1||[Note 220]|
|224||春秋公羊傳||Chunqiu Gongyang zhuan||Gongyang Gao 公羊高||1||[Note 221]|
|225||春秋釋例||Chunqiu shili||Du Yu 杜預||1|
|226||春秋外傳國語||Chunqiu waizhuan guoyu||Zuo Qiuming 左丘明||5|
|227||春秋長曆||Chunqiu zhangli||Du Yu 杜預||1||[Note 222]|
|228||春秋左氏經傳集解||Chunqiu Zuoshi jingzhuan jijie||Du Yu 杜預||1|
|229||春秋左氏傳||Chunqiu Zuoshi zhuan||Zuo Qiuming 左丘明||3||[Note 223]|
|230||春秋左氏傳解誼||Chunqiu Zuoshi zhuan jieyi||Fu Qian 服虔||1|
|232||國語解||Guoyu jie||Wei Zhao 韋昭||2||[Note 225]|
|233||古文尚書||Guwen shangshu||10||[Note 226]|
|234||河圖括地象||Hetu kuodi xiang||1||[Note 227]|
|235||淮南子||Huainan zi||Liu An 劉安||6||[Note 228]|
|236||今文尚書||Jinwen shangshu||1||[Note 229]|
|237||禮記注||Liji zhu||Zheng Xuan 鄭玄||5||[Note 230]|
|238||論語||Lunyu||Kong Qiu 孔丘||1||[Note 231]|
|239||論語集解||Lunyu jijie||He Yan 何晏||1|
|240||論語說義||Lunyu yishuo||Zhousheng Lie 周生烈||1||[Note 232]|
|241||呂氏春秋||Lüshi chunqiu||Lü Buwei 呂不韋||6||[Note 233]|
|243||毛詩箋||Maoshi jian||Zheng Xuan 鄭玄||2||[Note 235]|
|244||孟子||Mengzi||Meng Ke 孟軻||1|
|245||瑞應圖||Ruiying tu||1||[Note 236]|
|246||尚書注||Shangshu zhu||Ma Rong 馬融||1||[Note 237]|
|247||尚書注||Shangshu zhu||Zheng Xuan 鄭玄||8||[Note 238]|
|248||說苑||Shuoyuan||Liu Xiang 劉向||1||[Note 239]|
|249||小戴禮記||Xiao Dai liji||Dai Sheng 戴聖||5|
|250||戰國策||Zhanguo ce||Liu Xiang 劉向||1||[Note 240]|
|253||莊子||Zhuangzi||Zhuang Zhou 莊周||2||[Note 242]|
List of dubious texts found in Pei's annotations
The origin of these texts are disputable, as are either its contents, its names or its citations. Texts marked in red have been found in other lists of cited works (such as Gao Min's Books used by Pei Songzhi on noting 'History of the Three Kingdoms') but are according to us most definately an erroneous mention. In the notes section we explain why.
|1||曹嘉遺石崇詩||Cao Jia yi Shi Chong shi||Cao Jia 曹嘉||1||[Note 243]|
|2||崇有論||Chong youlun||Pei Wei 裴頠||n/a||[Note 244]|
|3||貴無論||Gui wulun||Wang Bi 王弼||n/a||[Note 245]|
|4||交廣記||Jiao-Guang ji||Wang Yin 王隱||1||[Note 246]|
|5||解寒食散方||Jie hanshi sanfang||Cao Xi 曹翕||n/a||[Note 247]|
|6||解寒食散方||Jie hanshi sanfang||Huangfu Mi 皇甫谧||n/a||[Note 248]|
|7||晉百官志||Jin baiguan zhi||1||[Note 249]|
|8||晉書||Jin shu||Gan Bao 干寶||1||[Note 250]|
|10||石崇答曹嘉詩||Shi Chong da Cao Jia shi||Shi Chong 石崇||1||[Note 252]|
|11||孫綽評||Sun Chuo ping||Sun Chuo 孫綽||1||[Note 253]|
|12||獻帝傳||Xiandi zhuan||10||[Note 254]|
|13||辛憲英傳||Xin Xianying zhuan ||Xiahou Zhan 夏侯湛||2||[Note 255]|
|14||序傳||Xu zhuan||Sima Biao 司馬彪||2||[Note 256]|
|15||荀粲傳||Xun Can zhuan ||He Shao 何劭||1||[Note 257]|
|16||議祀厲殃事||Yisi liyang shi||1||[Note 258]|
|17||異同記||Yitong ji||Sun Sheng 孫盛||1||[Note 259]|
|18||異同評||Yitong ping||Sun Sheng 孫盛||5||[Note 260]|
|19||異同雜語||Yitong zayu||Sun Sheng 孫盛||1||[Note 261]|
|20||樂廣傳||Yue Guang zhuan||Xie Kun 謝鯤||1||[Note 262]|
|21||鄭玄傳||Zheng Xuan zhuan||1||[Note 263]|
List of cited historians, compilers, etcetera
List of historians, authors, scholars and the like who have been cited by Pei Songzhi. These were cited by Pei Songzhi in Sanguo zhi without a name of a work being mentioned (in some cases they were referred to as 'commentary' 評).
|1||Gan Bao 干寶||2|
|2||Hua Jiao 華嶠||1|
|3||Huangfu Mi 皇甫謐||1|
|4||Pei Songzhi 裴松之 ||233|
|5||評||Sun Chuo 孫綽 ||1|
|6||評||Sun Sheng 孫盛||55|
|7||Xi Zuochi 習鑿齒||17|
|8||Yu Huan 魚豢||7|
|9||Yuan Hong 袁宏||1|
Facts & Figures
- Total amount of citings by Pei Songzhi: 2606
- Total amount of unique works used by Pei Songzhi: 253
- Most cited history work: Wèi shū (197x)
- Most cited history work in a single chapter: Wèi shū (41x in the Book of Wei 1)
- Most seen history work: Wèi shū(quoted in 29 of the 65 books)
- Chapter with the most quotations: Book of Wei 1 (172 quotations)
- Chapter with fewest quotations: Book of Wu 17 (4 quotations)
- ↑ “Official Posts”
A work entitled 名 is probably a list of names of office-holders. In this case a list of Jin officials. Jin probably maintained a continuing index of officials, and this on-going list could be broken up by reign (hence the List of Official Posts under Emperor Wu [of Jin] 武帝百官名 in the Book of Wei 18 and the List of Official Posts in the First Year of Xianxi 咸熙元年百官名 (the time of the abdication of Wei) in the Book of Wei 28). There was also a 百官名 for the reign of Emperor Hui of Jin (290-306), the second Emperor of Jin. All these were part of the same continuing record. 
- ↑ “Official Posts in the First Year of Xianxi”
- ↑ “Official Posts under Emperor Wu”
- ↑ “101 Poems” or “Admonishing Poems”
A set of pentasyllabic poems that convey political criticism. Ying Qu was a nephew of Ying Shao 應劭. Translating the title is rather difficult, as "Baiyi" 百一 could mean 'one and a hundred' but that doesn't always make sense (because it might've contained 130 poems). It could also have meant 'one of a hundred' or 'admonition', but those translations too don't always make sense. The Jin shu qishi 今書七志 says that every poem contained 101 words (今書七志曰: 應璩集謂之新詩, 以百言為一篇, 或謂之百一詩.)
- ↑ “The Master Who Embraces Simplicity” 
A Daoist classic divided into two parts; one part devoted to literary criticism and another on the inner cultivation of the Daoïsts. Ge Hong was both a scholar and a Daoïst priest.
- ↑ “Order on Appraisals and Rewards”
i.e. the collection of imperial orders of honour and eulogy from the archives of Wei.
- ↑ “Essay on the Theories of "The Way"”
Records of Daoist masters such as Zuo Ci, Xi Jian and Gan Shi. Also known as Dong'a Wang Bian Dao lun 東阿王辯道論.
- ↑ “Essay on Reasons for the Fall [of Wu]” 
Lu Ji was formerly a subject of Wu.
- ↑ “Unofficial Biography of Bing Yuan”
- ↑ “Records of Many Things” 
Sometimes called Bowu ji 博物記.
- ↑ “Collected Works of Duke Cao”
Also known as Wei Wudi ji 魏武帝集 (Collected Works of Emperor Wu of Wei).
- ↑ “Biography of Cao Man”
A highly detailed and somewhat novelized biographical work of Cao Cao. Possibly containing slanderous contents due to the author’s background.
- ↑ “Unofficial Biography of Cao Zhi”
Unofficial biography of Cao Zhi 曹志, son of the famous poet Cao Zhi 曹植.
- ↑ “Composition of Abdication to Jin”
first instance: “後魏為禪晉文” (“Later the Wei made it's compisition of abdication to Jin”)
Cao Huan is not mentioned as having written the abdication, but an abdication can only be written by the emperor, which at the time of the abdication was Cao Huan.
- ↑ “Unofficial Biography of Cheng Xiao”
- ↑ “Accounts of Venerable Men and Ancient Affairs of Chenliu” 
The Hou Han ji by Yuan Hong, 21, 8b says that in 153 A.D. Yuan Tang 袁湯 (grandfather of Yuan Shu became Grand Administrator of Chenliu commandery 陳留 and commissioned a Chenliu qijiu zhuan. The Book of Sui (Suī shū 隋書) mentions two books called Chenliu qijiu zhuan; one in 2 juan 卷 by Quan Cheng 圈称 of Han and the other in 1 juan bu Su Lin 蘇林 of Wei. There exists also a Chenliu fengsu zhuan in 3 juan by Quan Cheng. The Jiu Tang shu 舊唐書 (Old Book of the Tang Dynasty) has a Chenliu fengsu zhuan in 3 juan by Quan Cheng. The Xin Tang shu 新唐書 (New Book of the Tang Dynasty) mentions both the Chenliu qijiu zhuan by Su Lin and the Chenliu fengsu zhuan by Quan Cheng, each with the same number of chapters and in the Book of Sui. It is clear that the work which was commissioned by Yuan Tang did not deal with the period of the end of the Later Han, but Su Lin and Quan Cheng wrote continuations of the original. There is no way to decide which of the two continuations has been quoted in the commentary by Pei Songzhi.
- ↑ “Register of the Chen Clan”
- ↑ “Accounts of Worthy Men of the Past of the Country of Chu” 
The Book of Sui has a Chuguo xianxian zhuan zan 贊 in 12 juan by Zhang Fang.
- ↑ “Army Poems”
Included in the Collected Works of Wang Can (Wang Can ji 王粲集).
- ↑ “Register of the Cui Clan”
- ↑ “Answers to Questions” 
- ↑ “Rhapsody of the Great Tomb”
- ↑ “Authoritative Account” 
Listed in the Book of Sui as 89 juan 卷 large. However the Jiu Tang shu 舊唐書 (Old Book of Tang) says it's 50 juan large and mentions another work by Yu Huan, the Wei lüe, as 38 juan large. When added an introductory chapter; 50 + 38 + 1 = 89 juan. Because of this it is believed the Wei lüe and Dian lüe may be one and the same book.
- ↑ “Discourse on Literature”
This literary text implied that the then culturally accepted answers for death and dying weren't satisfactory enough to answer Cao Pi's thoughts about it.
- ↑ “the dinghai proclamation” 
Dinghai is one of the sixty-cycle days (day 24). The Dinghai ling was issued by Cao Pi on that day in the second month of 220, before he had taken the imperial title. One could also render it slightly more detailed, Proclamation on the 24th of the Sixty-Cycle Days.
- ↑ “Annals by Generations of the Emperors and Kings” 
- ↑ “New Book of the Du Clan”
- ↑ “Topolects”
It's full title is Youxuan dashi zhejue daiyushi bieguo fangyan 輶軒大使者絕代語釋別國方言 (“Topolects of other countries in times immemorial explained by the Light-Carriage Messenger”).
- ↑ “Commentary to 'Topolects'”
- ↑ “Unofficial Biography of Fei Yi”
- ↑ “A Compendium of Popular Customs” 
Also known as Fengsu tong.
- ↑ “Collected Works of Fu Xian”
- ↑ “Collected Works of the Duke of Gaogui”
Found as 帝集 (“Collected Works of the Emperor”) in Pei Songzhi's annotations in the Book of Wei 4.
- ↑ “Biographies of Eminent Gentlemen” 
Biographies of people from the period of the 3 Sovereigns and 5 Emperors to the Three Kingdoms.
- ↑ “Biography of Gu Tan”
- ↑ “Unofficial Biography of Guan Lu”
Guan Chen was a younger brother of Guan Lu.
- ↑ “Biography of Guanqiu Jian”
Unofficial Biography of Guanqiu Jian.
- ↑ “Biography of Guo Linzong”
- ↑ “Register of the Guo Clan”
- ↑ “Behavioral Sketches of Past Worthies within the Four Seas”
There were a number of books with this or a similar title. The Old and New Books of Tang (Jiu and Xin Tang shu) have Hainei xianxian zhuan. The Shishuo xinyu 世說新語 mentions a Xianxian xingzhuang, the Hainei xianxian zhuan and also a Yingzhuan xianxian xingzhuang. No certain identification can be made.
- ↑ “Annals of the Two Emperors Ling and Xian of Han”
In some editions of Records of the Three Kingdoms the Han Ling-Xian erdi ji is quoted, with Lingdi ji and Xiandi ji being part of them.
- ↑ “Annals of Emperor Ling”
Also mentioned as Han Lingdi ji 漢靈帝紀.
- ↑ “Annals of Emperor Xian”
- ↑ “History of Han” or “Book of Han”
- ↑ “History of the Han with Collected Explanations on Sound and Definitions”
- ↑ “History of the Han with Collected Explanations on Sound and Definitions”
- ↑ “History of Han Annotated” or “Book of Han Annotated”
- ↑ “Old Affairs of Han, Wei, Wu and Shu”
- ↑ “Records of the Reputed and Scholarly at the End of Han”
- ↑ “Records of the Heroes and Champions at the End of Han” 
- ↑ “Chronicles of Han and Jin” 
- ↑ “Chronicles of Han and Wei”.
The Jiu Tang shu 舊唐書 and the Xin Tang shu 新唐書 mention a Han chunqiu 漢春秋 and a Hou Wei chunqiu 後魏春秋, all by Kong Yan. Shen Jiaben 沈家本 of the early 20th century suggests that all are references to different arrangements of the same book.
- ↑ “Annals of the Later Han”
- ↑ “Annals of the Later Han”
Pei Songzhi, in the Book of Wei 4, suspects that Zhang Fan's Hou Han ji may never have been completed. Substantiated by the fact the writing quality was poor, unlike other works of Zhang Fan.
- ↑ “History of the Later Han” or “Book of the Later Han”.
Also known as Han houshu 漢後書.
- ↑ “History of the Later Han” or “Book of the Later Han”
- ↑ “Unofficial Biography of Hua Tuo”
- ↑ “Imperial Readings” 
Compiled by Confucian scholars for Emperor Wen of Wei (Cao Pi). This work is no longer extant, but some fragments quoted in other texts were pieced together by Sun Fengyi 孫馮翼 at the end of the 18th century. It was a collection of excerpts from the national literature, presented to the emperor in a way that was convenient for him to read, and is believed to have contained 120 chapters.
- ↑ “Record of the Countries to the South of Mount Hua” 
- ↑ “Register of the Hu Clan”
- ↑ “Praise of Ministers Who have Supported Junior Han” 
- ↑ “Unofficial Biography of Ji Kang”
- ↑ “Collected Works of Ji Kang”
- ↑ “Register of the Ji Clan”
- ↑ “Family Biographies”
- ↑ found in Book of Wei 11: 杜恕著《家戒》稱閣曰：「。。。」
It is hard to tell whether this work was cited by Chen Shou or Pei Songzhi. Older versions of Records of the Three Kingdoms printed it as Chen's words, but the citing style looked more like Pei's. Li Qiming 李慈銘 believes the text really was by Pei Songzhi, and Rafe de Crespigny agrees with him (thus, so do we).
- ↑ “Admonitions to the Family”
- ↑ “Accounts from the Area South of the Yangtze” 
- ↑ “Memorials on the Fall of Wu”
- ↑ “Chronicle of the Two Provinces Jiao and Guang” 
There is also a work mentioned called Jiao-Guang ji ascribed to Wang Yin. Rafe de Crespigny suggests that Wang Yin 王隱 may have been miswritten for Wang Fan 王範 and that the Jiao-Guang ji and Jiao-Guang erzhou chunqiu are one and the same book.
- ↑ “Table of Officials of Jin”
May well have presented a list of offices and the name of the holders (whereas a 百官名 would be a list a of names of office-holders and 百官志 probably a description of the offices themselves). Ascribed to Xun Chuo 荀綽 (who also did the commentary) and probably a different book than the earlier listed Baiguan ming 百官名 and it's later added indexes.
- ↑ “Collected Works of Jin Gu”
- ↑ “Diaries of Activities and Repose of Emperor Hui of Jin”.
Emperor Hui of Jin reigned from 290 to 306, but was born in 259.
- ↑ “Annals of Jin”
- ↑ “History of Jin” or “Book of Jin”
- ↑ “History of Jin” or “Book of Jin”
- ↑ “Geographical Records for the third year of the Taikang era of Jin”
- ↑ “Diaries of Activities and Repose of the Taishi era of Jin”
Jin's Taishi era of Emperor Wen was from 265-274 AD.
- ↑ “Intermediate Classics of Emperor Wu of Jin”
- ↑ “Chronicle of Jin” 
The Book of Sui also mentions a Xu Jin yangqiu 續晉陽秋 by Tan Daoluan 檀道鸞 of the Liu Song Dynasty. Yangqiu 陽秋 is an alternative form of the much more common Chunqiu 春秋. The character for chun 春 was part of the childhood name of the Empress née Zhang of the Jin Emperor Jianwen 簡文 and therefor chun was subsistuted to avoid the tabu. In later times the titles of some books kept the change, but others, such as the Han-Wei chunqiu returned to their original names.
- ↑ “Eulogy for the Officials of Jin”
- ↑ “Spring and Autumn Annals of the Nine Provinces” 
- ↑ “Records of the Nine Provinces”
Was divided into sections on the various provinces. Two of these sections (Jizhou ji and Yanzhou ji) have been quoted by Pei Songzhi.
- ↑ “Records of Ji Province”
- ↑ “Records of Yan Province”
- ↑ “Essential Notes Resolving Doubts”
- ↑ “Collected Works of Kong Rong”
- ↑ “Register of the Kong Clan”
- ↑ “Authoritative Record of Kuaiji” 
- ↑ “Biographies of the Shao Family of Kuaiji”
- ↑ “An Imperial Order sent to Wuxing Commandery”
- ↑ Also known as Liji yin(yi yin) 禮記音(義隱).
- ↑ “Biographies of Exemplary Women” 
Served as a standard Confucianist textbook for the moral education of women in traditional China for two millennia.
- ↑ “Accounts of Strange Things” 
Some passages in this book describe events after Cao Pi's death, so perhaps it was Cao Pi who begun working on this book and Zhang Hua finished it.
- ↑ “Accounts of Worthy Men of the Past of Lingling” 
- ↑ “Unofficial Biography of Liu Yi”
- ↑ “Register of the Liu Clan”
- ↑ “Unofficial Biography of Lu Chen”
- ↑ “Unofficial Biography of Lu Ji and Lu Yun”
- ↑ “Inscriptions of Lu Xun”
Was once in Lu Ji's collected works, but is not there now.
- ↑ “Inscriptions of Lu Zhi”
- ↑ “Master Lu Zhonglian”
- ↑ “Biographies of the He Family of Lujiang”
- ↑ “Hymns of Generations of the Lu Family”
- ↑ “Private Records”
- ↑ “Biography of my Mother the Lady Zhang”.
Zhong Hui's biography of his mother the Lady Zhang, now included in his collected works.
- ↑ “Interrogating the Elders and Brothers from Shu”
- ↑ “Unofficial Biography of Pan Ni”
- ↑ “Unofficial Biography of Pan Yue”
- ↑ “Collected Works of Pan Yue”
- ↑ “Biography of Mi Heng from Pingyuan”
Also known as Mi Heng zhuan 禰衡傳 or Ming Heng biezhuan 禰衡別傳.
- ↑ The preface to the Hua shipu 華氏譜 by Hua Jiao.
- ↑ “Seven Outlines”
- ↑ Sometimes erroneously written as Qimeng zhu 啓蒙注. It also may have held the title Qiyi ji 啟疑記.
- ↑ “Unofficial Biography of Ren Gu”
- ↑ “Register of the Ruan Clan”
- ↑ “Accounts of Worthy Men of the Past of Runan”
- ↑ “Records of the Three Dynasties”
- ↑ “Evaluative Record of the Three Adjuncts” 
A collection of biographies of gentlemen from the three commanderies around the Former Han capital, Chang'an.
- ↑ “Annotated Evaluative Record of the Three Adjuncts”
- ↑ “Annotated Records of the Three Kingdoms”
Often referred to as just 三國評.
- ↑ Also known as Shan Tao qishi 山濤啟事. Shan Tao was one of the Seven Sages of the Bamboo Grove (Zhúlín qīxián 竹林七賢) of the Jin Dynasty.
- ↑ “Stele of Xun Yu ordered by the Imperial Secretat”
- ↑ “Parallel Annals of the Duke of Shanyang”
The Duke of Shanyang was Emperor Xian of Han. This work was a history of the life and reign of the Emperor.
- ↑ “Classic of Deities and the Extraordinary”
- ↑ “Biographies of Spirits and Immortals” 
- ↑ “Records of the Grand Historian”
- ↑ The basic annals of Shu-Han. Compiled regularly by the Shu-Han history offices, and Qiao Zhou was one of the editors.
- ↑ “Rhapsody of the Capitals of Shu”
- ↑ “Records of Shu”
- ↑ “List of Generations of Shu”
- ↑ “Record of Shu”
- ↑ “Forest of Documents”
- ↑ “Aspects of the Four Styles of Calligraphy” 
i.e. the preface to the Siti shushi.
- ↑ “Collected Works of the Minister over the Masses Wang Lang”
- ↑ “Records of Enquiry about the Spirits” 
- ↑ “Unofficial Biography of Sun Hui”
- ↑ “Unofficial Biography of Sun Zi”
- ↑ “Register of the Sun Clan”
- ↑ “The Art of War”
Military treatise attributed to Sun Tzu (also referred to as Sun Zi 孫子 and Sun Wu 孫武). The text is divided into 13 chapters (piān).
- ↑ “A Listing of Five Anecdotes about Zhuge Liang”
An essay of criticism on Zhuge Liang of Shu-Han in five sections. Pei Songzhi in Zhuge Liang's biography quotes several times from this work which was written shortly after the conquest of Shu-Han by Jin and it was quoted in the Shu ji by Wang Yin.
- ↑ “Common Words”
- ↑ “Biography of Wang Bi”
- ↑ “Biographies of the Families of Wang Lang and Wang Su”
- ↑ “Register of the Wang Clan”
- ↑ “Rhapsody of the Capitals of Wei”
- ↑ “Annals of Wei”
- ↑ “A Wei memorial on suburb sacrifice”
found in the Book of Wei 2: 臣松之按：魏郊祀奏中，尚書盧毓議祀厲殃事云：「。」
- ↑ “Authoritative History of Wei” 
The Book of Sui says the Wei lüe had 89 juan 卷. The Jiu Tang shu 舊唐書 (Old Book of Tang) lists a similarly titled text, the Dian lüe, in 50 juan and the Wei lüe in 38 juan. Together this makes 88 juan, but when we add an introductory chapter we have 89 juan. Because of this it is believed that the Wei lüe and Dian lüe may have been one and the same book. Shen Jiaben 沈家本 of the early 20th century notes that the quotations in Pei Songzhi's commentary which were taken from the Dian lüe deal with men who did not live under Wei; Lü Bu and Gongsun Zan for example, and concludes that the Wei lüe and Dian lüe are two distinct works. However, the Records of the Three Kingdoms also has biographies of Lü Bu and Gongsun Zan in the Wei section so his theory may not be considered solid. He goes on to say that the Wei lüe dealt with Wei, while the Dian lüe dealt with Han.
- ↑ “Memorials of the Celebrated Ministers of Wei” 
A quote by Pei Songzhi in the Book of Wei 22 mentions an imperial order for the compilation of an anthology of memorials called Mingchen zouyi 名臣奏議 during the Zhengshi reignperiod of Wei (240-249). The Book of Sui mentions a Han mingchen zou 漢名臣奏 in 30 juan and De Crespigny suggests this might've been about Shu-Han.
- ↑ “List of Generations of Wei”
- ↑ “History of Wei” or “Book of Wei”
- ↑ “Stories of Emperor Wu of Wei”
- ↑ “Record of Wei”
- ↑ “Accounts of the End of Wei”
- ↑ “Chronicle of the House of Wei” 
- ↑ The present-day fragment is for some reason ascribed to Wang Su.
- ↑ “Tales of Generations of Wei and Jin” 
- ↑ “Eulogy for Emperor Wen”
- ↑ “Biographies of Literary Gentlemen”
The authorship of this work is uncertain. In the Book of Wei 9 Pei Songzhi ascribes it to Zhang Yin 張隱, but in the Book of Wei 21 it is ascribed to Zhang Zhi 張騭. In the Book of Wei 10 Pei Songzhi gives the personal name as Heng 衡. Commentary in the Hou Han shu (50b and 27b) also say Zhang Zhi, so the weight of the evidence favours Zhang Zhi.
- ↑ Also known as Wenzhang xulu.
- ↑ “Records of Refined and Beautiful Words”
- ↑ “Annals of Wu”
- ↑ “Calendar of Wu” 
- ↑ “Record of Wu” 
- ↑ “History of Wu” or “Book of Wu”.
Wei Yao was originally known was Wei Zhao 韋昭, but his name was changed after the conquest of Jin in order to avoid the tabu on the personal name of Sima Zhao 司馬昭, father of the first Jin emperor Sima Yan.
- ↑ “Record of Wu”
- ↑ “Unofficial Biography of Wu Zhi”
- ↑ “Eulogy for Emperor Wu”
- ↑ “Rhapsody on the Capitals of Wu, Extended and Annotated”
- ↑ “Chronicle of Emperor Xian”
- ↑ “Diaries of Activities and Repose of Emperor Xian” 
- ↑ “Physiognomy”
Written during the Han by Xu Fu 許負?
- ↑ “Accounts of the Elders of Xiangyang”
- ↑ “New Theory”
- ↑ “New Preface”
- ↑ “History of Han Continued” or “Book of Han Continued”
With primary commentary by Liu Zhao 劉昭, now comprise the treatises of the "standard" Hou Han shu by Fan Ye 范曄.
- ↑ “Unofficial Biography of Xun Yu”
- ↑ “Unofficial Biography of Xun Xu”
- ↑ “Account of the Xun Family”
Contains biographies of Xun Yu and Xun You and their family.
- ↑ “Rhapsody to the Capital of Yang”
'Records of the Three Kingdoms lists the commentary (Yang dufu zhu 揚都賦注) but that was done by the author of the original work, and it was also included in the original work (thus 揚都賦注 is some sort of a chapter in 揚都賦). When Pei Songzhi was citing 揚都賦注 he was thus actually citing 揚都賦.
- ↑ “Collected Works of Yao Xin”
- ↑ “Accounts of Venerable Men and Ancient Affairs of Yi Division”
- ↑ “Miscellaneous Accounts of Venerable Men and Ancient Affairs of Yi Division”
Found in Records of the Three Kingdoms as 益部耆舊雜記 and 益部耆舊傳雜記. Chen Shu was writing in the first half of the third century. Perhaps he was an elder contemporary of Chen Shou. Due to the similarity of some of their work (Yibu qijiu zhuan) it could be that Chen Shou extracted some of Chen Shu's work.
- ↑ “Biographies of Gentlemen in Retirement” 
- ↑ “Forest of Miracles”
Pei Songzhi describes the author only as Lu Shi 陸氏 (meaning “Mr Lu”). However the writer refers to his uncle the Grand Administrator of Qinghe and Pei Songzhi notes that this refers to Lu Yan 陸晏, thus the author may be Lu Wei or Lu Xia 夏, who were the sons of Lu Yun's elder brother. The work was also known as Lushi yilin 陸氏異林.
- ↑ “Records of Rarities”
- ↑ “Unofficial Biography of Yu Fan”
- ↑ “Letter to Guo Huai”
- ↑ “A Letter to Emperor Yuan of Jin”
- ↑ “Register of the Yu Clan”
- ↑ “Letter to Wang Lang”
- ↑ “Letter to Xu Jing”
- ↑ “Letter to the Provincial Governor of Yang, Yin Hao”
- ↑ “Annals by Generations of the Yuan Family”
- ↑ “Master Yuan's Essay on Positivity”
- ↑ “Book on the End of Yue”
A history of the kingdom of Yue 越 during the Eastern Zhou period 東周 (770-221 BC). Written in the style of a history novel, rather than a history work. The main part deals with the reign of King Goujian 句踐, who made Yue a powerful kingdom.
- ↑ “Miscellany” 
Pei Songzhi quoted several similarly titled texts by Sun Sheng, the Zaji, Zayu, Yitong zayu, Ping, Yitong ping and Yitong ji. Rafe de Crespigny believes they are all one and the same, and said so in his 1970 and 1990 works. It seems likely that at least the Zayu and Yitong zayu are the same, as well as the Ping and Yitong ping as Pei Songzhi was fond of abbreviating titles. Shen Jiaben 沈家本 (early 20th century), Lin Guozan 林國贊 (17th century) and Qian Daxin 錢大昕 (18th century) share the same point of view as Rafe de Crespigny. Wang Zuyi 王祖彝 (1956) believes Yitong ping and Yitong zayu were two different texts and the others were part of them. Gao Min raises the question why one text (if indeed it would be on text), was cited so many times under so many different names. There are likely many more theories but none of them have any firm evidence.
- ↑ “Records of Comparisons”
- ↑ “Comparisons and Criticisms”
- ↑ “Comparisons and Comments”
- ↑ “To [Cao] Biao, King of Boma” 
- ↑ Also known as Ma xiansheng xu 馬先生序. The preface to the Ma Jun biezhuan 馬鈞別傳.
- ↑ “Outlines of War”
- ↑ “Collected Works of Zhang Chao”
- ↑ “Unofficial Biography of Zhao Yun”
- ↑ “Unofficial Biography of Zheng Xuan”
- ↑ “The Forest of Records” 
Also known as Zhilin xinshu 志林新書 (New Book of the Forest of Records).
- ↑ “Memorial on Zhongchang Tong's "Appropriate Words"”
i.e. the preface to the Changyan by Zhongchang Tong, which was a Confucian treatise.
- ↑ “Unofficial Biography of Zhuge Ke”
- ↑ “Collected Works of Zhuge Liang”
- ↑ “Campaign Memorials”
Zhuge Liang's campaign memorial which he submitted to Liu Shan before embarking on a campaign against Wei.
- ↑ “The text of the memorial presented to the Secretariat by Zhuge Liang” 
- ↑ “A lesson for Li Feng”
- ↑ “'”
- ↑ “'”
- ↑ “Register of the Zhuge Clan”
- ↑ “The Forest of Characters”
A character dictionary whose entries are arranged according to character radicals. The Zilin was lost during the Song Dynasty, but fragments have survived when Ren Dazhuang 任大樁 of the Qing Dynasty 清 collected them from quotations in other books and compiled the Zilin kaoyi 字林考逸 in 8 juan.
- ↑ “Table of Sima Shi's Wrongdoings”
- ↑ “Explanations of the Gongyang Annals”
- ↑ “Gongyang's Commentary to the Spring and Autumn Annals” 
- ↑ “Calendric Overview of the Spring and Autumn period”
- ↑ “Master Zuo's Annals to the Spring and Autumn Annals”
- ↑ “Master Guan”
- ↑ “Explanation of Conversations of the States”
- ↑ “Old Texts [version] of the Book of Documents”
The Shangshu is also known as Shujing 書經.
- ↑ An apocryphal Confucian classic.
- ↑ “Master Huainan” 
- ↑ “New Text [version] of the Book of Documents”
The Shangshu is also known as Shujing 書經.
- ↑ “Commentary to the Book of Rites”
A commentary by Zheng Xuan to a revised version by Ma Rong 馬融 of the Xiao Dai liji 小戴禮記 by Dai Sheng 戴聖.
- ↑ “Analects”
Also known as Analects of Confucius.
- ↑ found in the Book of Wei 13: 臣松之案此人姓周生，名烈。何晏《論語集解》有烈義例，
- ↑ “Master Lü's Spring and Autumn Annals”
A collection of treatises on cosmological matters from the late Warring States period 戰國. Said to have been written by a number of retainers of Lü Buwei (retainers of noble men at that time were highly educated and represented a philosophical school of thinking). It contains Confucian and Daoist thought as well as theories of the nominalists (mingjia 名家), legalists, Mohists, agronomists and the Yin-Yang.
- ↑ “Mao Poems”
Mao edition of the Shijing 詩經 "Book of Poetry".
- ↑ “Commentary to Mao Poems”
- ↑ “Illustration of the Responses of Auspicious Omens” 
- ↑ “Book of Documents Annotated”
- ↑ “Book of Documents Annotated”
- ↑ “Garden of Stories”
A collection of short stories of persons from antiquity to the Former Han period. Classified as a Confucian treatise, but the literary critic Liu Xie 劉勰 from the Southern Dynasties period 南朝 (420~589), writing the Wenxin diaolong 文心雕龍, interpreted the stories as of more literary character. It was therefore often classified as collection of short stories in later ages, inspite of its historiographical content.
- ↑ “Intrigues of the Warring States” 
- ↑ “Rites of Zhou”
Originally known as Zhou guan 周官. It outlines the supposed structure of the state of Zhou.
- ↑ “Master Zhuang”
- ↑ found in: 文武應時用，兼才在明哲。嗟嗟我石生，為國之俊傑。入侍於皇闥，出則登九列。威檢肅青、徐，風發宜吳裔。疇昔謬同位，情至過魯、衛。分離踰十載，思遠心增結。願子鑒斯誠，寒暑不踰契。
A poem by Cao Jia sent to Shi Chong (who later sent a poem in return). The entire poem has been included in the Book of Wei 20. Pei Songzhi was merely describing an event in which Cao Jia and Shi Chong sent each other a poem. He wasn't quoting them for referential purposes.
- ↑ “Essay in Praise of Being” 
Written by Pei Wei in opposition to Wang Bi's approach in Essay on the Value of Non-Being (Gui wulun 貴無論) (see next entry). Like with Wang Bi's text, Pei Songzhi is just referring to it but not quoting it.
- ↑ “Essay on the Value of Non-Being” 
A philosophical work by Wang Bi, a neo-Daoist philosopher. Mentioned in the Book of Wei 23 by Pei Songzhi, but not quoted.
- ↑ “Records of Jiao and Guang [Provinces]” 
Rafe de Crespigny believes it is likely that that the Jiao-Guang ji ascribed to Wang Yin is actually a miswriting for the Jiao-Guang erzhou chunqiu of Wang Fan. 
- ↑ Listed in Gao Min's work and found in the Book of Wei 20, but it is not quoted by Pei Songzhi. The text just mentions two medical works, one by Cao Xi and another by Huangfu Mi, being released.
- ↑ Listed in Gao Min's work and found in the Book of Wei 20, but it is not quoted by Pei Songzhi. The text just mentions two medical works, one by Huangfu Mi and another by Cao Xi, being released.
- ↑ “Records of Officials of Jin”
(晉)百官志 is actually miswritten for 百官名 in the Book of Wei 12 and 15.
- ↑ “Book of Jin”
A title found in the Book of Wei 3 supposedly written by Gan Bao. However, Gan Bao never wrote a Jin shu 晉書. There are editions of the Records of the Three Kingdoms in which the title is Jin ji 晉紀.
- ↑ The Sancang consisted of three texts, the Cangjie 蒼頡, the Yuanli 爰曆 and the Boxue 博學. These three works can be considered studybooks of Mandarin language and weren't quoted by Pei Songzhi to explain something about the history of the Three Kingdoms.
- ↑ found in: 昔常接羽儀，俱游青雲中，敦道訓冑子，儒化渙以融，同聲無異響，故使恩愛隆。豈惟敦初好，款分在令終。孔不陋九夷，老氏適西戎。逍遙滄海隅，可以保王躬。世事非所務，周公不足夢。玄寂令神王，是以守至沖。
Shi Chong's poem in reply to Cao Jia's poem. The entire poem (as quoted above) can be found in the Book of Wei 20. Gao Min listed the poem for his "Books used by Pei Songzhi on noting “History of the Three Kingdoms”", but one should rather consider it as an account of event, rather than Pei Songzhi citing a poem.
- ↑ “Critics by Sun Chuo”
Some historians believe the Sun Chuo ping was the name of a text part of the Jinwei weiqing Sun Chuo ji 晉衛尉卿孫綽集. Others, such as Zhao Yi 趙翼 and Wang Zuyi 王祖彝 do not see it as the title of a text. In modern versions of the Records of the Three Kingdoms the Sun Chuo ping was not placed between book mark punctuations (《》).
- ↑ “Biography of Emperor Xian”
A title found in the Book of Wei 1, 2, 3 and 6. The name is quite suspicious because biographies (zhuán 傳) were written for subjects and never Emperors (who had annals (jì 紀) written for them). Rafe de Crespigny and Lu Bi, in Sanguo zhi jijie 三國志集解 suspect it is miswritten for Xiandi ji 獻帝紀.
- ↑ “Biography of Xin Xianying”
Quoted below a citation from the Wei-Jin shiyu as if Pei Songzhi was quoting Xin Xianying zhuan as carried by the Wei-Jin shiyu. Rafe de Crespigny did include this work in his index of works quoted by Pei Songzhi for Records of the Three Kingdoms.
- ↑ “Autobiographical Memoir”
i.e. the preface to the Xu Han shu 續漢書 by Sima Biao. Not an individual book.
- ↑ The work is quoted within a quotation from Jin yangqiu 晉陽秋, thus Xun Can zhuan was not quoted by Pei Songzhi, but by the author of Jin yangqiu (Sun Sheng). Rafe de Crespigny did include this work in his index of works quoted by Pei Songzhi for Records of the Three Kingdoms and says it might've been a biezhuan 別傳. 
- ↑ found in Book of Wei 2: 臣松之按：魏郊祀奏中，尚書盧毓議祀厲殃事云：「。。。」
It was part of a memorial [魏郊祀奏], and is not, strictly speaking, the name of a particular text. It is best understood as referring to a discussion 議 by the Master of Writing Lu Yu 盧毓 [member of the Secretariat] on the subject of sacrifices to seek good fortune.
- ↑ It is often suggested by former and modern scholars and historians that this text might've been a different name of, or part of Zaji 雜記 (see entry 207 "Zaji").
- ↑ “Comparisons and Criticisms”
Also referred to as Sun Sheng ping 孫盛評. It is often suggested by former and modern scholars and historians that this text might've been a different name of, or part of Zaji 雜記 (see entry 207 "Zaji")
- ↑ “Comparisons and Comments”
Also referred to as just Zayu 雜語. It is often suggested by former and modern scholars and historians that this text might've been a different name of, or part of Zaji 雜記 (see entry 207 "Zaji")
- ↑ “Biography of Yue Guang”
Found in the Book of Wei 23 and it somehow made it to Gao Min's list. The Yue Guang zhuan was mentioned, but not quoted.
- ↑ found in: 《鄭玄傳》云：玄薦乾於州。乾被辟命，玄所舉也。
Assumably the name should've been 鄭玄別傳. The quotation here was about Zheng Xuan's promotion of Sun Qian, which was an event too trivial to be included in a "basic biography" (zhuan 傳). Events like these were usually included in "unofficial biographies" 別傳.
- ↑ This column shows the name of the text in hanzi. The name sometimes differs from how it's found in Records of the Three Kingdoms. Pei Songzhi often abbreviated titles. We list the full title.
- ↑ This column shows how the name in hanzi is pronounced.
- ↑ This column gives the author of the text as found in Records of the Three Kingdoms. If found in another work, a source is mentioned.
- ↑ This column shows how many times the text was quoted by Pei Songzhi and it tells where the very first quotation can be found (based on the 1959 Chunghwa edition of Records of the Three Kingdoms.
- ↑ This column gives additional information, such as a translation of the title of the text, what it's about, if it's known under a different name, et cetera.
- ↑ 1.000 1.001 1.002 1.003 1.004 1.005 1.006 1.007 1.008 1.009 1.010 1.011 1.012 1.013 1.014 1.015 1.016 1.017 1.018 1.019 1.020 1.021 1.022 1.023 1.024 1.025 1.026 1.027 1.028 1.029 1.030 1.031 1.032 1.033 1.034 1.035 1.036 1.037 1.038 1.039 1.040 1.041 1.042 1.043 1.044 1.045 1.046 1.047 1.048 1.049 1.050 1.051 1.052 1.053 1.054 1.055 1.056 1.057 1.058 1.059 1.060 1.061 1.062 1.063 1.064 1.065 1.066 1.067 1.068 1.069 1.070 1.071 1.072 1.073 1.074 1.075 1.076 1.077 1.078 1.079 1.080 1.081 1.082 1.083 1.084 1.085 1.086 1.087 1.088 1.089 1.090 1.091 1.092 1.093 1.094 1.095 1.096 1.097 1.098 1.099 1.100 1.101 1.102 1.103 1.104 1.105 1.106 1.107 1.108 1.109 1.110 1.111 1.112 1.113 1.114 1.115 1.116 1.117 1.118 1.119 1.120 1.121 1.122 1.123 1.124 1.125 1.126 1.127 1.128 1.129 1.130 1.131 1.132 1.133 1.134 1.135 1.136 1.137 1.138 1.139 1.140 1.141 1.142 1.143 1.144 1.145 1.146 1.147 1.148 1.149 1.150 1.151 1.152 1.153 1.154 1.155 1.156 1.157 1.158 1.159 1.160 1.161 1.162 1.163 1.164 1.165 1.166 1.167 1.168 1.169 1.170 1.171 1.172 1.173 1.174 1.175 de Crespigny. “Index of Books and Writers quoted in the P'ei Sung-chih commentary to San-kuo chih” in The Records of the Three Kingdoms.
- ↑ Lü Bi. Sanguo zhi jijie, 12:34b-35a
- ↑ 3.00 3.01 3.02 3.03 3.04 3.05 3.06 3.07 3.08 3.09 3.10 3.11 3.12 3.13 3.14 3.15 3.16 3.17 3.18 3.19 3.20 3.21 3.22 3.23 3.24 3.25 de Crespigny. "Sources for the History" in Generals of the South.
- ↑ 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 de Crespigny. e-mail contact
- ↑ 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 de Crespigny. "Bibliography" in Generals of the South
- ↑ de Crespigny. The Records of the Three Kingdoms, page 71
- ↑ de Crespigny. The Record of the Three Kingdoms, page 48.
- ↑ de Crespigny. The Record of the Three Kingdoms, page 55.
- ↑ de Crespigny. The Record of the Three Kingdoms, page 75.
- ↑ de Crespigny. "Early Sources" in A Biographical Dictionary of Later Han to the Three Kingdoms, pages 1241-6
- ↑ de Crespigny. The Record of the Three Kingdoms, page 58.
- ↑ de Crespigny. "Cao Pi" in A Biographical Dictionary of Later Han to the Three Kingdoms, page 45
- ↑ 13.0 13.1 13.2 de Crespigny. "Literary and Scholarly Works" in A Biographical Dictionary of Later Han to the Three Kingdoms, pages 1255-66
- ↑ 14.0 14.1 de Crespigny. The Record of the Three Kingdoms, page 50.
- ↑ 15.0 15.1 Lü Bi. Sanguo zhi jijie, 37b
- ↑ de Crespigny. The Record of the Three Kingdoms, page 66.
- ↑ de Crespigny. The Record of the Three Kingdoms, page 47.
- ↑ de Crespigny. The Record of the Three Kingdoms, page 84.
- ↑ de Crespigny. The Record of the Three Kingdoms, page 49.
- ↑ de Crespigny. The Records of the Three Kingdoms, page 81.
- ↑ de Crespigny. The Record of the Three Kingdoms, page 83.
- ↑ de Crespigny. The Records of the Three Kingdoms, page 85.
- ↑ de Crespigny. "The Biography of Sun Jian", in Occasional Paper 5
- ↑ Lü Bi. "Book of Shu 1" in Sanguo zhi jijie.
- ↑ de Crespigny. The Record of the Three Kingdoms, page 51.
- ↑ Tian Shan. "Yue jueshu 越絕書" in Zhongguo wenxue da cidian 中國文學大辭典, volume 8.
- ↑ Pei Songzhi. Biography of Xi Zheng, Book of Shu 12 in Records of the Three Kingdoms
- ↑ de Crespigny. The Records of the Three Kingdoms, page 77
- ↑ 29.0 29.1 29.2 Cutter & Crowell. "Bibliography" in Empresses and Consorts
- ↑ Lillian Lan-ying Tseng. Picturing Heaven in Early China, page 106
- ↑ de Crespigny. "Sources for the History" in Generals of the South, footnote on page 19.
- ↑ 32.0 32.1 de Crespigny. The Record of the Three Kingdoms, page 61.
- ↑ de Crespigny. The Record of the Three Kingdoms, page 62.
- Chen Shou 陳壽 (233–297). Sanguo zhi 三國志 “Records of the Three Kingdoms”, with official commentary compiled by Pei Songzhi 裴松之 (372-451).
- Fang Xuanling 房玄齡 (578-648). Jin shu 晉書 “History of Jin”. Beijing: Zhonghua shuju, 1974.
- Gao Min 高敏. 《三国志》裴松之注引书考 "Books used by Pei Songzhi on noting “History of the Three Kingdoms”" in Journal of Henan University of Science and Technology, nr. 25.3 (June 2007): 5-21.
- Gao Xiufang 高秀芳 and Yang Ji'an 楊濟安. Sanguo zhi renming suoyin 三國志人名索引 "Index of Names in Records of the Three Kingdoms". Zhonghua Publishing, 1980.
- Lu Bi 盧弼. Sanguo zhi jijie 三國志集解 "Records of the Three Kingdoms with Collected Explanations". 1936. Reprint, Taipei: Hanjing wenhua shiye youxian gongsi, 1981.
In Western Language
- Cutter, Robert Joe and William Gordon Crowell. Empresses and Consorts - Selections from Chen Shou's Records of the Three States with Pei Songzhi's Commentary. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press, 1999.
- de Crespigny, Rafe. A Biographical Dictionary of Later Han to the Three Kingdoms (23 - 220 AD). Leiden: BRILL, 2007.
- —. Generals of the South: the foundation and early history of the Three Kingdoms state of Wu. Canberra: The Australian National University, 1990.
- —. „The Biography of Sun Jian.” Occasional Paper 5 (1966): 1-14.
- —. The Records of the Three Kingdoms: a study in the historiography of San-kuo chih. Canberra: The Australian National University, 1970.
- Fang, Achilles. The Chronicle of the Three Kingdoms. Vol. I. Harvard University Press, 1952. 2 vols.
- —. The Chronicle of the Three Kingdoms. Vol. II. Harvard University Press, 1965. 2 vols.