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The Huayang guo zhi 華陽國志 (Records of the Countries to the South of Mount Hua) is the oldest extant local history work of China and an important early forerunner of the gazzeteer in China.[1] It consists of twelve scrolls (juàn 卷) and was compiled by the Jin scholar Chang Qu 常璩 (c. 291 – c. 361 AD) in the 4th century.

DescriptionEdit

The title, in English: Records of the Countries to the South of Mt. Hua,[2] is derived from the area that is the theme of Chang Qu's book: the region of Ba commandery 巴, Shu commandery 蜀, Hanzhong 漢中 and Nanzhong 南中. Through 12 chapters the history of these regions from ancient times until the 4th century is told. Chang Qu himself was from one of these regions; the Shu commandery. The underlying purpose of this work is to legitimize ancient Huayang's place in the larger Chinese body politic.[1]

The first four chapters give a general discription of the four areas and goes back to ancient times. The chapters 5 - 10 deal with the Han, Shu-Han, Western Jin and Cheng-Han 成漢 times of the region, told through the biographies of various people important to the region, such as Liu Bei 劉備 and Gongsun Shu 公孫述. The chapters 10 and 11 are biographies of worthy men and women.

The Huayang guo zhi is of great importance for the early history of the modern province of Sichuan. The focus of this text is the political administration of a particular region, but it also deals with territorial boundaries, mountains, rivers, local products, ancient historical sites and customs (in a peripheral way).[1]

The Huayang guo zhi was used by Pei Songzhi for his annotations to Records of the Three Kingdoms. He quoted it a total of 19 times (see below). During the Tang Dynasty the Huoyang guo zhi was used by Li Xian 李賢 for his commentaries on the History of the Later Han.

Liu Lin 劉琳 wrote a commentary to the Huayang guo zhi, called the Huayang guo zhi jiaozhu 華陽國志校注.

Fragments in Records of the Three KingdomsEdit

Book of Shu 2 - Biography of the Former Lord (Liu Bei)Edit

  1. 《華陽國志》云:于時正當雷震,備因謂操曰:「聖人云『迅雷風烈必變』,良有以也。一震之威,乃可至於此也!」
The Records of the Lands to the South of Mt. Hua says: “Just at that moment there was a clap of thunder. Liu Bei immediately said to Cao, ‘When the sage said, “If there is a sudden clap of thunder and a fierce wind, I must change my countenance,” it was truly with reason. The awesomeness of a single clap can cause this!’”

Book of Shu 3 - Biography of the Latter Lord (Liu Shan)Edit

  1. 《華陽國志》曰:丞相亮時,有言公惜赦者,亮答曰:「治世以大德,不以小惠,故匡衡、吳漢不願為赦。先帝亦言吾周旋陳元方、鄭康成閒,每見啟告,治亂之道悉矣,曾不語赦也。若劉景升、季玉父子,歲歲赦宥,何益於治!」

Book of Shu 5 - Biography of Zhuge LiangEdit

  1. 《華陽國志》曰:尚歎曰:「父子荷國重恩,不早斬黃皓,以致傾敗,用生何為!」乃馳赴魏軍而死。

Book of Shu 6 - Biography of Zhang FeiEdit

  1. 《華陽國志》曰:初,先主入蜀,至巴郡,顏拊心歎曰:「此所謂獨坐窮山,放虎自衞也!」
Records of the Lands to the South of Mt. Hua says: “Previously, when the Former Ruler 先主 [Liu Bei] entered Shu 蜀 and arrived at Ba 巴 commandery, [Yan] Yan [嚴]顏 stroke his breast and sighed, 'This is like what they said—sitting alone on an empty hill and set a tiger to protect oneself!'”

Book of Shu 7 - Biography of Fa ZhengEdit

  1. 《華陽國志》曰:度,廣漢人,為州從事。

Book of Shu 9 - Biography of Dong YunEdit

  1. 《華陽國志》曰:時蜀人以諸葛亮、蔣琬、費禕及允為四相,一號四英也。

Book of Shu 12 - Biography of Meng GuangEdit

  1. 《華陽國志》曰:承字公文,歷郡守少府。

Book of Shu 12 - Biography of Qiao ZhouEdit

  1. 《華陽國志》曰:文立字廣休,少治毛詩、三禮,兼通群書。刺史費禕命為從事,入為尚書郎,復辟禕大將軍東曹掾,稍遷尚書。蜀并于魏,梁州建,首為別駕從事,舉秀才。晉泰始二年,拜濟陰太守,遷太子中庶子。立上言:「故蜀大官及盡忠死事者子孫,雖仕郡國,或有不才,同之齊民為劇;又諸葛亮、蔣琬、費禕等子孫流徙中畿,各宜量才敘用,以慰巴、蜀之心,傾吳人之望。」事皆施行。轉散騎常侍,獻可替否,多所補納。稍遷衛尉,中朝服其賢雅,為時名卿。咸寧末卒。立章奏詩詩賦論頌凡數十篇。

Book of Shu 13 - Biography of Li HuiEdit

  1. 華陽國志》曰:習後官至領軍。

Book of Shu 13 - Biography of Ma ZhongEdit

  1. 《華陽國志》云:表,張松子,未詳。閻宇字文平,南郡人也。

Book of Shu 13 - Biography of Wang PingEdit

  1. 《華陽國志》曰:後張翼、廖化並為大將軍,時人語曰:「前有王、句,後有張、廖。」

Book of Shu 14 - Biography of Jiang WeiEdit

  1. 《華陽國志》曰;維惡黃皓恣擅,啟後主欲殺之。後主曰:「皓趨走小臣耳,往董允切齒,吾常恨之,君何足介意!」維見皓枝附葉連,懼於失言,遜辭而出。後主敕皓詣維陳謝。維說皓求沓中種麥,以避內逼耳
  2. 《華陽國志》曰:維教會誅北來諸將,既死,徐欲殺會,盡坑魏兵,還復蜀祚,密書與後主曰:「願陛下忍數日之辱,臣欲使社稷危而復安,日月幽而復明。」

Book of Shu 15 - Biography of Deng ZhiEdit

  1. 《華陽國志》曰:芝征涪陵,見玄猿緣山。芝性好弩,手自射猿,中之。猿拔其箭,卷木葉塞其創。芝曰:「嘻,吾違物之性,其將死矣!」一曰:芝見猿抱子在樹上,引弩射之,中猿母,其子為拔箭,以木葉塞創。芝乃歎息,投弩水中,自知當死。

Book of Shu 15 - Biography of Zhang YiEdit

  1. 《華陽國志》曰:翼子微,篤志好學,官至廣漢太守

Book of Shu 15 - Biography of Yang XiEdit

  1. 《華陽國志》曰:密祖父光,朱提太守。父早亡。母何氏,更適人。密見養於祖母。治春秋左氏傳,博覽多所通涉,機警辯捷。事祖母以孝聞,其侍疾則泣涕側息,日夜不解帶,膳飲湯藥,必自口嘗。本郡禮命不應,州辟從事尚書郎,大將軍主簿,太子洗馬,奉使聘吳。吳主問蜀馬多少,對曰:「官用有餘,人閒自足。」吳主與群臣汎論道義,謂寧為人弟,密曰:「願為人兄矣。」吳主曰:「何以為兄?」密曰:「為兄供養之日長。」吳主及群臣皆稱善。蜀平後,征西將軍鄧艾聞其名,請為主簿,及書招,欲與相見,皆不往。以祖母年老,心在色養。晉武帝立太子,徵為太子洗馬,詔書累下,郡縣偪遣,於是密上書曰:「臣以險釁,夙遭閔凶,生孩六月,慈父見背,行年四歲,舅奪母志。祖母劉,愍臣孤弱,躬見撫養。臣少多疾病,九歲不行,零丁孤苦,至於成立,既無伯叔,終鮮兄弟,門衰祚薄,晚有兒息。外無期功強近之親,內無應門五尺之童,煢煢孑立,形影相弔。而劉早嬰疾病,常在床蓐,臣侍湯藥,未曾廢離。逮奉聖朝,沐浴清化,前太守臣逵察臣孝廉,後刺史臣榮舉臣秀才,臣以供養無主,辭不赴命。詔書特下,拜臣郎中,尋蒙國恩,除臣洗馬,猥以微賤,當侍東宮,非臣隕首所能上報。臣具表聞,辭不就職。詔書切峻,責臣逋慢,郡縣偪迫,催臣上道,州司臨門,急於星火。臣欲奉詔奔馳,則劉病日篤,苟順私情,則告訴不許,臣之進退,實為狼狽。伏惟聖朝以孝治天下,凡在故老,猶蒙矜愍,況臣孤苦,特為尤甚。且臣少仕偽朝,歷職郎署,本圖宦達,不矜名節。今臣亡國賤俘,至微至陋,猥蒙拔擢,寵命優渥,豈敢盤桓,有所希冀?但以劉日薄西山,氣息奄奄,人命危淺,朝不慮夕。臣無祖母,無以至今日,祖母無臣,亦無以終餘年,母孫二人,更相為命,是以區區不敢廢遠。臣今年四十有四,祖母劉今年九十有六,是臣盡節於陛下之日長,報養劉之日短也。烏鳥私情,願乞終養。臣之辛苦,非徒蜀之人士及二州牧伯所見明知,皇天后土,實所共鑒。願陛下矜愍愚誠,聽臣微志,庶劉僥倖,保卒餘年。臣生當隕首,死當結草,臣不勝犬馬怖懼之情!」武帝覽表曰:「密不空有名也。」嘉其誠款,賜奴婢二人,下郡縣供養其祖母奉膳。及祖母卒,服終,從尚書郎為河內溫縣令,政化嚴明。中山諸王每過溫縣,必責求供給,溫吏民患之。及密至,中山王過縣,欲求芻茭薪蒸,密牋引高祖過沛,賓禮老幼,桑梓之供,一無煩擾,「伏惟明王孝思惟則,動識先戒,本國望風,式歌且舞,誅求之碎,所未聞命。」自後諸王過,不敢有煩。隴西王司馬子舒深敬友密,而貴勢之家憚其公直。密去官,為州大中正,性方直,不曲意勢位。後失荀勖、張華指,左遷漢中太守,諸王多以為冤。一年去官,年六十四卒。著述理論十篇,安東將軍胡熊與皇甫士安並善之。
  2. 《華陽國志》曰:邵兄邈,字漢南,劉璋時為牛鞞長。先主領牧,為從事,正旦命行酒,得進見,讓先主曰:「振威以將軍宗室肺腑,委以討賊,元功未效,先寇而滅;邈以將軍之取鄙州,甚為不宜也。」先主曰:「知其不宜,何以不助之?」邈曰:「匪不敢也,力不足耳。」有司將殺之,諸葛亮為請,得免。久之,為犍為太守、丞相參軍、安漢將軍。建興六年,亮西征。馬謖在前敗績,亮將殺之,邈諫以「秦赦孟明,用伯西戎,楚誅子玉,二世不競」,失亮意,還蜀。十二年,亮卒,後主素服發哀三日,邈上疏曰:「呂祿、霍、禹未必懷反叛之心,孝宣不好為殺臣之君,直以臣懼其偪,主畏其威,故姦萌生。亮身杖彊兵,狼顧虎視,五大不在邊,臣常危之。今亮殞沒,蓋宗族得全,西戎靜息,大小為慶。」後主怒,下獄誅之。
  3. 《華陽國志》曰:群下上先主為漢中王;其文,朝所造也。

Book of Wu 3 - Biography of Sun HaoEdit

  1. 《華陽國志》曰:稷,犍為人。炅,建寧人。稷等城中食盡,死亡者半,將軍王約反降,吳人得入城,獲稷、炅,皆囚之。孫皓使送稷下都,稷至合浦,歐血死。晉追贈交州刺史。初,毛炅與吳軍戰,殺前部督脩則。陶璜等以炅壯勇,欲赦之。而則子允固求殺炅,炅亦不為璜等屈,璜等怒,面縛炅詰之,曰:「晉兵賊!」炅厲聲曰:「吳狗,何等為賊?」吳人生剖其腹,允割其心肝,罵曰:「庸復作賊?」炅猶罵不止,曰:「尚欲斬汝孫皓,汝父何死狗也!」乃斬之。晉武帝聞而哀矜,即詔使炅長子襲爵,餘三子皆關內侯。

Read the Huayang guo zhi online (Chinese)Edit

Chaptertitle Translation
1 卷一: 巴志 scroll 1: Records of Ba
2 卷二: 漢中志 scroll 2: Records of Hanzhong
3 卷三: 蜀志 scroll 3: Records of Shu
4 卷四: 南中志 scroll 4: Records of Nanzhong
5 卷五: 公孫述劉二牧志 scroll 5: Records of Gongsun Shu and the two governing Lius
6 卷六: 劉先主志 scroll 6: Records of the Former Liu
7 卷七: 劉後主志 scroll 7: Records of the Latter Liu
8 卷八: 大同志 scroll 8: Records of the Great Unity
9 卷九: 李特雄期壽勢志 scroll 9: Records of Liu Te, Xiong, Qi, Shou, Shi
10 卷十: 先賢士女總讚論 scroll 10: Former Biographies of worthy men and women
11 卷十一: 後賢志 scroll 11: Latter Biographies [of worthy men and women]
12 卷十二: 序志 scroll 12: Postface

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Hargett. Treatises of the Supervisor and Guardian, page XXXIII
  2. De Crespigny. "Bibliography" in Generals of the South.

SourcesEdit

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