Han Ling-Xian erdi ji 漢靈獻二帝紀 (Annals of the Two Emperors Ling and Xian of Han) is a Chinese 3rd century text containing annals of Emperor Ling and annals of Emperor Xian of Han.

Bits of informationEdit

The writer of Han Ling-Xian erdi ji, Liu Ai, was a magistrate in Hongnong commandery and later a Chief Clerk to Dong Zhuo in Chang’an. The city fell into the hands of various warlords throughout the 190's and eventually it belonged to Cao Cao.

Liu Ai first compiled the accounts for the reign of Emperor Ling (Lingdi ji 靈帝紀) and later that of his successor Emperor Xian (Xiandi ji 獻帝紀). Written as two separate texts, they were later bundled together as the Han Ling-Xian erdi ji. In some editions of the Records of the Three Kingdoms the Han Ling-Xian erdi ji is quoted, rather than the Lingdi ji and Xiandi ji separately.

The Book of Sui mentions a Han Ling-Xian erdi ji by one Liu Fang 方, but that is probably a miswriting for Ai 艾, because in the commentary it says that the Liang Dynasty collection had six surviving chapters 卷 of this text. The Old Book of Tang and the New Book of Tang also mention this text and both also mention the six chapters, but give the name of the author as Liu Ai.

Furthermore it is a given fact that Liu Ai wrote the Lingdi ji and there is a Handi zhuan 漢帝傳 attributed to him in 194. In the year 194 the Emperor's posthumous title 'Xian'[n 1] was obviously not yet known to him, so it may be that at that time he was already working on a sequel to the Lingdi ji, but just called it Handi zhuan while waiting for the posthumous name of Liu Xie.

Fragments in Records of the Three KingdomsEdit

See Lingdi ji and Xiandi ji for surviving fragments in Records of the Three Kingdoms.

See alsoEdit


  1. Ling, Xian, Huan, et cetera. These were all posthumous titles. During their lifetime they were never called as such. These posthumous titles were given to describe the reign style of the Emperor. Ling 靈, for example, or rather 孝靈 (full posthumous name) means 'filial and unattentive'.


  1. 1.0 1.1 de Crespigny. “Index of Books and Writers quoted in the P'ei Sung-chih commentary to San-kuo chih” in The Records of the Three Kingdoms.


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