Fengsu tongyi 風俗通義 (A Compendium of Popular Customs) is a Chinese text written by Ying Shao 應劭.

Bits of informationEdit

Ying Shao lived from 140-206. He once defeated a group of Yellow Turbans. The later years of his life he spent as a subordinate of Yuan Shao 袁紹. When Cao Cao 曹操 defeated the Yuan family, Ying Shao had already died.

Ying Shao was a writer and one of his works was the Fengsu tongyi. The Book of Sui mentions this book and says it has 31 juan 卷.[1] Initially it may or may not have been larger, since the Book of Sui was finished during the Tang Dynasty (618–907) and by that time the work may no longer have been intact. Today only 10 juan of this work survive.

Of the lost chapters, the names are known through records by Su Song 蘇頌 and Lu Xinyuan 陸心源, but their order is unknown.

Fragments in Records of the Three KingdomsEdit

Book of Wei 6 - Biography of Dong ZhuoEdit

  1. 《風俗通》曰:司隷劉嚻,以黨諸常侍,致位公輔。

Book of Wu 7 - Biography of Zhang ZhaoEdit

  1. 時汝南主簿應劭議《宜為舊君諱》,論者皆互有異同,事在《風俗通》。

Book of Wu 7 - Biography of Zhuge JinEdit

  1. 《風俗通》曰:葛嬰為陳涉將軍,有功而誅,孝文帝追錄,封其孫諸縣侯,因并氏焉。

Read the Fengsu tongyi online (Chinese)Edit

The Fengsu tongyi had originally 31 chapters. Only 10 of these chapters have survived. Below is a list of all chapters, along with the 10 surviving ones which you can read online.

Chaptertitle Translation Notes
1 皇霸 Huangba Emperorship and hegemony
2 正失 Zhengshi The right and wrong formerly chapter 6
3 愆禮 Yanli formerly chapter 8
4 過譽 Guoyu formerly chapter 7
5 十反 Shifan formerly chapter 9
6 聲音 Shengyin formerly chapter 13
7 窮通 Qiongtong formerly chapter 15
8 祀典 Sidian formerly chapter 20
9 怪神 Guaishen formerly chapter 31
10 山澤 Shanze formerly chapter 24

The lost main 20 chapters are: Xinzheng 心政, Guzhi 古制, Yinjiao 陰教, Bianhuo 辨惑, Xidang 析當, Shudu 恕度, Jiahao 嘉號, Zhengcheng 徽稱, Qingyu 情遇, Xingshi 姓氏, Huipian 諱篇, Shiji 釋忌, Jishi 輯事, Fuyao 服妖, Sangji 喪祭, Gongshi 宮室, Shijing 市井, Shuji 數紀, Xinqin 新秦, and Yufa 獄法.

Furthermore, the Book of Sui says there was a chapter 31 called lu 錄 ("records").

See alsoEdit



  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 de Crespigny. “Index of Books and Writers quoted in the P'ei Sung-chih commentary to San-kuo chih” in The Records of the Three Kingdoms.


Ad blocker interference detected!

Wikia is a free-to-use site that makes money from advertising. We have a modified experience for viewers using ad blockers

Wikia is not accessible if you’ve made further modifications. Remove the custom ad blocker rule(s) and the page will load as expected.