Empress Zhang 張皇后 was the eldest (大) daughter of Zhang Fei and first wife of Liu Shan.


Empress Zhang was Zhang Fei's eldest daughter. She became Empress to Liu Shan (as Empress Jing'ai). Her mother was Lady Xiahou, cousin to Xiahou Ba. When Liu Shan became Emperor, according to the advice of Zhuge Liang and others, Lady Zhang became his Empress at the age of seventeen. In the year 221 A.D., Lady Zhang entered the court as the consort of the Crown Prince Liu Shan. In 223 A.D., she became Empress. She died in 237 A.D. The title of Empress passed down to her younger sister.[1]



  1. de Crespigny, A Biographical Dictionary, biography of Zhang, the Lady VIII, page 1032


  • de Crespigny, Rafe. A Biographical Dictionary of Later Han to the Three Kingdoms (23 - 220 AD). Leiden: BRILL, 2007.

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